Effect of short-term changes in urban air pollution on the respiratory health of children with chronic respiratory symptoms: The PEACE project: Introduction

W. Roemer, G. Hoek, B. Brunekreef, J. P. Schouten, G. Baldini, J. Clench-Aas, N. Englert, P. Fischer, B. Forsberg, J. Haluszka, A. Kalandidi, F. Kotesovec, G. Niepsuj, J. Pekkanen, P. Rudnai, S. Skerfving, V. Vondra, H. E. Wichmann, D. Dockery, J. Schwartz

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Abstract

The Pollution Effects on Asthmatic Children in Europe (PEACE) study investigated the acute health effects of short-term changes in ambient air pollution on children with chronic respiratory symptoms. The study was conducted in the winter of 1993-1994 following a standardized protocol by 14 research centres in Europe. Two panels of at least 75 children each were followed during at least 2 months. Children of primary school age, 6-12 yrs old, who had experienced chronic respiratory symptoms in the year preceding the study or had ever been told by a doctor that they had asthma, were selected. One panel was selected from an urban region, the other panel lived in an area in which air pollution concentrations were thought to be considerably lower. Exposure to air pollution was monitored on a daily basis. Health status was monitored by daily peak expiratory flow (PEF) measurements and a symptom diary. Subject characterization was performed by questionnaire, skin-prick test and pulmonary function using forced expiratory manoeuvres. Daily prevalence and incidence of symptoms and medication use were calculated from the diaries and analysed using logistic regression with correction for autocorrelation. PEF was analysed using linear regression with correction for autocorrelation. Independent variables were 24 h average concentrations of particles with a 50% cut-off aerodynamic diameter of 10 μm (PM10), black smoke, SO2 and NO2. As confounders, temperature, time trend and weekend/holidays were taken into account.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4-11
Number of pages8
JournalEuropean Respiratory Review
Volume8
Issue number52
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 1998

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Keywords

  • Air pollution
  • Children
  • PM
  • Panel study
  • Peak expiratory flow
  • Respiratory symptoms

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine

Cite this

Roemer, W., Hoek, G., Brunekreef, B., Schouten, J. P., Baldini, G., Clench-Aas, J., Englert, N., Fischer, P., Forsberg, B., Haluszka, J., Kalandidi, A., Kotesovec, F., Niepsuj, G., Pekkanen, J., Rudnai, P., Skerfving, S., Vondra, V., Wichmann, H. E., Dockery, D., & Schwartz, J. (1998). Effect of short-term changes in urban air pollution on the respiratory health of children with chronic respiratory symptoms: The PEACE project: Introduction. European Respiratory Review, 8(52), 4-11.