The effect of rainfall quantity and N, P, K, Ca and Mg fertilisation on the yield of triticale was evaluated in eleven years (1990-2001) of a long-term fertilisation and liming experiment set up on acidic, sandy, brown forest soil with alternate thin layers of clay substance in the Nyírség region of Eastern Hungary. The agrochemical parameters of the experimental soil were as follows: pHH2O: 5.9, pHKCl: 4.5, hydrolytic acidity: 8.4, hy1: 0.3, humus: 0.5%, CEC: 5-10 mgcq 100 g-1, total N: 34 mg, AL-P2O5: 43 mg, AL-K2O: 60 mg · kg-1 in the ploughed layer. The ploughed layer was poor in all five macroelements (N, P, K, Ca, Mg). The groundwater was at a depth of 2-3 m. In the triticale experiments there were 32 treatments with 4 replications, giving a total of 128 plots in a factorial random block design. The plot size was 10×5 = 50 m2. In the various treatments nitrogen was applied at rates of 0, 50, 100 and 150 kg · ha-1, phosphorus (P2O5) and potassium (K2O) at 0, 60, 120 and 180 kg · ha-1, calcium (CaCO3) at 0, 250, 500 and 1000 kg ha-1 and magnesium (MgCO3) at 0, 140 and 280 kg · ha-1 each year. The nitrogen, as 28% calcium ammonium nitrate, was applied in two equal splits in autumn and spring, while the P, K, Ca and Mg fertilisers were applied prior to ploughing in autumn in the form of 18% superphosphate, 60% potassium chloride, 95% limstonc powder and 18% dolomite powder. In autumn 1997 the P, K, Ca and Mg fertilisers were applied for four years in advance. The major results and conclusions were as follows: 1. The following specific rainfall supply values were determined for triticale: droughty month prior to sowing (August), droughty vegetation period (September-July) and droughty harvesting period (July) if the rainfall quantity in the given period was at least 50%, 30% and 50% less, respectively, than the many years' average, number of consecutive months with drought during the vegetation period (September-July) and the experimental year (September-August), year characteristic (AJ): average (AT), dry (SZ), droughty (A), wet (CS), very wet (B). 2. On the basis of "general" (Harnos 1993) and specific rainfall supply values the years were characterised as average (1991, 1995, 2000), dry (1993), droughty (1992, 1994, 1996), wet (1997, 1998, 2001) and very wet (1999). 3. The year effects in the experiments were determined chiefly by the rainfall quantities in the winter half-year, the summer half-year and the month prior to sowing, and by the frequency of consecutive critical months during the vegetation period and the experimental year. 4. In average years the yield of the unfertilised control plots was low (1.4 t · ha -1). In the fertiliser treatments the maximum yield (4.0 · t ha-1) was more than twice the lowest yield (1.9 t · ha -1). N, NP and NK crtilisation resulted on average in a 1.0 t · ha-1 yield increment compared to the control plots. The triticale yield could only be increased economically by the full NPK treatment (3.3 t · ha-1) or by combinations including calcium and magnesium (NPKCa, NPKMg, NPKCaMg) (3.9 t · ha-1). 5. In dry and droughty weather the yield of the control areas was 14% and 36% less, respectively, than in average years. The application of N alone or of NP and NK treatments led to yield losses of 45 and 24%, respectively, while that of NPK, NPKCa, NPKMg or NPKCaMg caused a further 22% drop in both types of years. 6. In the wet years the yield decreased by 14% in the unfertilised plots, remained unchanged in the case of N, NP or NK nutrition, and increased by 31% in the NPK, NPKCa, NPKMg and NPKCaMg treatments. In the very wet year the yields were similar to those in the average year. 7. The relationships between rainfall quantity during the vegetation period, NPKCaMg nutrition and yield could be characterised primarily by quadratic correlations (R: Control = 0.3455**, N = 0.2779*, NP = = 0.4722***, NK = 0.3738***, NPK = 0.6311***, NPKCa = 0.6673***, NPKMg = 0.6734***, NPKCaMg = 0.6232***). Maximum yields in the region of 5.0-6.0 t · ha-1 were achieved in the rainfall range of 550-600 mm, at around 580 mm. At values above and below this figure there was a considerable reduction in the grain yield.
|Translated title of the contribution||Effect of rainfall and nutrient supplies on the yield of triticale in long-term experiments|
|Number of pages||15|
|Publication status||Published - Dec 2002|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Agronomy and Crop Science