A mutrágyázás hatása a borsó (Pisum sativum L.) termésére és minoségére

Translated title of the contribution: Effect of mineral fertilisation on the yield and quality of pea (Pisum sativum L.)

I. Kádár, S. Fekete, László Radics

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

6 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The effect of various N, P and K supply levels and their combinations on the development, weed infestation and yield of the pea variety Újmajori and on the available macro- and microelement contents of the ploughed layer was investigated in the 17th year of a long-term mineral fertilisation experiment on loamy chernozem soil with lime deposits. The soil of the growing site contained 3% humus, 5% CaCO3 and 20% clay in the ploughed layer, and was classified as poorly supplied with P and Zn and moderately well with N and K. The experiment was set up with 4N×4P×4K = 64 treatments in 2 replications, giving a total of 128 plots. The mineral fertilisers were applied in the form of calcium ammonium nitrate containing 25% N, 18% superphosphate and 50% potassium chloride. The groundwater was at a depth of 15 m and the area was prone to drought. The main results were as follows: 1. After fertilisation with superphosphate, not only was there an increase in the available P content in the ploughed layer as determined by various methods (ammonium lactate, NaHCO3, NH4-acetate+EDTA), but the available Sr reserves almost doubled, since the Sr contamination of the superphosphates applied was as high as 1-2%. K fertilisation increased the available supplies of K, Mg, Na, Al, Fe, Ba and Ni, while reducing that of Zn. The composition of the 50% potassium chloride only provides an explanation for the accumulation of Na and Mg in the topsoil. 2. The effect of N fertilisation was reflected in the increased NO3-N concentrations and in the reduced reserves of available K. The latter may be related to the higher yield averages achieved on N-fertilised plots, and to the large quantities of K removed from these plots in the course of 17 years. 3. At N rates in excess of 100 kg · ha -1 · year-1 the stand became thinner and weed-infested, while there was a reduction in the stem, pod and seed yields. Overfertilisation with P and K did not lead to yield depression. In the early stages of development the P effect was dominant, while during ripening N and K effects were dominant. The optimum supply levels on this soil amounted to 0-100 kg · ha-1 · year-1 N, 120-130 mg · kg-1 AL-P2O5 and 180-190 mg · kg -1 AL-K2O. 4. The crude protein content in the seed yield was 23% in the N control and 30% at the maximum N rate. With the exception of arginine there was a reduction in the quantity of amino acids as the result of N effects. This reduction amounted to a total of 5% for both the essential and the non-essential amino acids. Amino acids made up 97% of the seed protein on N-deficient soil and 87% on soil with excessive N supplies. The P treatments gave no significant modification in the amino acid composition of the seed protein. 5. In animal feeding experiments the body mass increase of young rats increased by 2-3 times when they were fed pea seeds rich in P, while their net protein utilisation (NPU) also improved by 10-15% compared with the P control. N fertilisation had the opposite effect.

Original languageHungarian
Pages (from-to)229-242
Number of pages14
JournalNovenytermeles
Volume52
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2003

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Pisum sativum
peas
minerals
superphosphate
potassium chloride
amino acids
seed yield
soil
superphosphates
ammonium lactate
weeds
seeds
calcium ammonium nitrate
proteins
animal feeding
loam soils
humus
mineral fertilizers
amino acid composition
topsoil

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agronomy and Crop Science

Cite this

A mutrágyázás hatása a borsó (Pisum sativum L.) termésére és minoségére. / Kádár, I.; Fekete, S.; Radics, László.

In: Novenytermeles, Vol. 52, No. 2, 04.2003, p. 229-242.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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title = "A mutr{\'a}gy{\'a}z{\'a}s hat{\'a}sa a bors{\'o} (Pisum sativum L.) term{\'e}s{\'e}re {\'e}s minos{\'e}g{\'e}re",
abstract = "The effect of various N, P and K supply levels and their combinations on the development, weed infestation and yield of the pea variety {\'U}jmajori and on the available macro- and microelement contents of the ploughed layer was investigated in the 17th year of a long-term mineral fertilisation experiment on loamy chernozem soil with lime deposits. The soil of the growing site contained 3{\%} humus, 5{\%} CaCO3 and 20{\%} clay in the ploughed layer, and was classified as poorly supplied with P and Zn and moderately well with N and K. The experiment was set up with 4N×4P×4K = 64 treatments in 2 replications, giving a total of 128 plots. The mineral fertilisers were applied in the form of calcium ammonium nitrate containing 25{\%} N, 18{\%} superphosphate and 50{\%} potassium chloride. The groundwater was at a depth of 15 m and the area was prone to drought. The main results were as follows: 1. After fertilisation with superphosphate, not only was there an increase in the available P content in the ploughed layer as determined by various methods (ammonium lactate, NaHCO3, NH4-acetate+EDTA), but the available Sr reserves almost doubled, since the Sr contamination of the superphosphates applied was as high as 1-2{\%}. K fertilisation increased the available supplies of K, Mg, Na, Al, Fe, Ba and Ni, while reducing that of Zn. The composition of the 50{\%} potassium chloride only provides an explanation for the accumulation of Na and Mg in the topsoil. 2. The effect of N fertilisation was reflected in the increased NO3-N concentrations and in the reduced reserves of available K. The latter may be related to the higher yield averages achieved on N-fertilised plots, and to the large quantities of K removed from these plots in the course of 17 years. 3. At N rates in excess of 100 kg · ha -1 · year-1 the stand became thinner and weed-infested, while there was a reduction in the stem, pod and seed yields. Overfertilisation with P and K did not lead to yield depression. In the early stages of development the P effect was dominant, while during ripening N and K effects were dominant. The optimum supply levels on this soil amounted to 0-100 kg · ha-1 · year-1 N, 120-130 mg · kg-1 AL-P2O5 and 180-190 mg · kg -1 AL-K2O. 4. The crude protein content in the seed yield was 23{\%} in the N control and 30{\%} at the maximum N rate. With the exception of arginine there was a reduction in the quantity of amino acids as the result of N effects. This reduction amounted to a total of 5{\%} for both the essential and the non-essential amino acids. Amino acids made up 97{\%} of the seed protein on N-deficient soil and 87{\%} on soil with excessive N supplies. The P treatments gave no significant modification in the amino acid composition of the seed protein. 5. In animal feeding experiments the body mass increase of young rats increased by 2-3 times when they were fed pea seeds rich in P, while their net protein utilisation (NPU) also improved by 10-15{\%} compared with the P control. N fertilisation had the opposite effect.",
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T1 - A mutrágyázás hatása a borsó (Pisum sativum L.) termésére és minoségére

AU - Kádár, I.

AU - Fekete, S.

AU - Radics, László

PY - 2003/4

Y1 - 2003/4

N2 - The effect of various N, P and K supply levels and their combinations on the development, weed infestation and yield of the pea variety Újmajori and on the available macro- and microelement contents of the ploughed layer was investigated in the 17th year of a long-term mineral fertilisation experiment on loamy chernozem soil with lime deposits. The soil of the growing site contained 3% humus, 5% CaCO3 and 20% clay in the ploughed layer, and was classified as poorly supplied with P and Zn and moderately well with N and K. The experiment was set up with 4N×4P×4K = 64 treatments in 2 replications, giving a total of 128 plots. The mineral fertilisers were applied in the form of calcium ammonium nitrate containing 25% N, 18% superphosphate and 50% potassium chloride. The groundwater was at a depth of 15 m and the area was prone to drought. The main results were as follows: 1. After fertilisation with superphosphate, not only was there an increase in the available P content in the ploughed layer as determined by various methods (ammonium lactate, NaHCO3, NH4-acetate+EDTA), but the available Sr reserves almost doubled, since the Sr contamination of the superphosphates applied was as high as 1-2%. K fertilisation increased the available supplies of K, Mg, Na, Al, Fe, Ba and Ni, while reducing that of Zn. The composition of the 50% potassium chloride only provides an explanation for the accumulation of Na and Mg in the topsoil. 2. The effect of N fertilisation was reflected in the increased NO3-N concentrations and in the reduced reserves of available K. The latter may be related to the higher yield averages achieved on N-fertilised plots, and to the large quantities of K removed from these plots in the course of 17 years. 3. At N rates in excess of 100 kg · ha -1 · year-1 the stand became thinner and weed-infested, while there was a reduction in the stem, pod and seed yields. Overfertilisation with P and K did not lead to yield depression. In the early stages of development the P effect was dominant, while during ripening N and K effects were dominant. The optimum supply levels on this soil amounted to 0-100 kg · ha-1 · year-1 N, 120-130 mg · kg-1 AL-P2O5 and 180-190 mg · kg -1 AL-K2O. 4. The crude protein content in the seed yield was 23% in the N control and 30% at the maximum N rate. With the exception of arginine there was a reduction in the quantity of amino acids as the result of N effects. This reduction amounted to a total of 5% for both the essential and the non-essential amino acids. Amino acids made up 97% of the seed protein on N-deficient soil and 87% on soil with excessive N supplies. The P treatments gave no significant modification in the amino acid composition of the seed protein. 5. In animal feeding experiments the body mass increase of young rats increased by 2-3 times when they were fed pea seeds rich in P, while their net protein utilisation (NPU) also improved by 10-15% compared with the P control. N fertilisation had the opposite effect.

AB - The effect of various N, P and K supply levels and their combinations on the development, weed infestation and yield of the pea variety Újmajori and on the available macro- and microelement contents of the ploughed layer was investigated in the 17th year of a long-term mineral fertilisation experiment on loamy chernozem soil with lime deposits. The soil of the growing site contained 3% humus, 5% CaCO3 and 20% clay in the ploughed layer, and was classified as poorly supplied with P and Zn and moderately well with N and K. The experiment was set up with 4N×4P×4K = 64 treatments in 2 replications, giving a total of 128 plots. The mineral fertilisers were applied in the form of calcium ammonium nitrate containing 25% N, 18% superphosphate and 50% potassium chloride. The groundwater was at a depth of 15 m and the area was prone to drought. The main results were as follows: 1. After fertilisation with superphosphate, not only was there an increase in the available P content in the ploughed layer as determined by various methods (ammonium lactate, NaHCO3, NH4-acetate+EDTA), but the available Sr reserves almost doubled, since the Sr contamination of the superphosphates applied was as high as 1-2%. K fertilisation increased the available supplies of K, Mg, Na, Al, Fe, Ba and Ni, while reducing that of Zn. The composition of the 50% potassium chloride only provides an explanation for the accumulation of Na and Mg in the topsoil. 2. The effect of N fertilisation was reflected in the increased NO3-N concentrations and in the reduced reserves of available K. The latter may be related to the higher yield averages achieved on N-fertilised plots, and to the large quantities of K removed from these plots in the course of 17 years. 3. At N rates in excess of 100 kg · ha -1 · year-1 the stand became thinner and weed-infested, while there was a reduction in the stem, pod and seed yields. Overfertilisation with P and K did not lead to yield depression. In the early stages of development the P effect was dominant, while during ripening N and K effects were dominant. The optimum supply levels on this soil amounted to 0-100 kg · ha-1 · year-1 N, 120-130 mg · kg-1 AL-P2O5 and 180-190 mg · kg -1 AL-K2O. 4. The crude protein content in the seed yield was 23% in the N control and 30% at the maximum N rate. With the exception of arginine there was a reduction in the quantity of amino acids as the result of N effects. This reduction amounted to a total of 5% for both the essential and the non-essential amino acids. Amino acids made up 97% of the seed protein on N-deficient soil and 87% on soil with excessive N supplies. The P treatments gave no significant modification in the amino acid composition of the seed protein. 5. In animal feeding experiments the body mass increase of young rats increased by 2-3 times when they were fed pea seeds rich in P, while their net protein utilisation (NPU) also improved by 10-15% compared with the P control. N fertilisation had the opposite effect.

KW - NPK fertilisation

KW - Pea

KW - Quality

KW - Soil analysis

KW - Weed infestation

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