A mutrágyázás hatása a sörárpa (Hordeum distichon) termésére és minoségére

Translated title of the contribution: Effect of mineral fertilisation on the yield and quality of malting barley (Hordeum distichon)

I. Kádár, György Béndek, Läszlö Radics

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The effects of various N, P and K supply levels and their combinations on the development, weed infestation and yield of malting barley variety Opal and on the malting quality of the grain were examined by micromalting in 1986, in the 13th year of a long-term mineral fertilisation experiment set up on calcareous loamy chernozem soil. The soil of the growing site contained an average of 3% humus, 5% CaCO3 and 20% clay, and was moderately well supplied with N and K, but poorly supplied with P and Zn. The experiment involved 4N × 4P × 4K = 64 treatments in 2 replications, giving a total of 128 plots. The mineral fertilisers were applied in the form of 25% calcium ammonium nitrate, 18% superphosphate and 50% potassium chloride. The ripening period in July was characterised by drought. The main results were as follows: 1. Combined NP fertilisation increased the cover of the forecrop, mustard, in 1985 and of spring barley at the end of tillering in 1986 to 95%, compared to 52% in the control plot. The number of weed species in the mustard crop dropped from 10 to 5 and that in the barley from 6 to 1. In both years the dominant weed species were Amaranthus blitoides, Chenopodium album and Stachys annua. 2. Scoring in the heading stage for damage to the flag-leaf by Lema melanopus indicated 10% damage in the control plot and 28% in barley overfertilised with NP. 3. Compared with the control, joint fertilisation with N and P led to an increase in the aboveground green shoot mass from 7 to 18 t/ha at shooting and from 10 to 21 t/ha at heading, with an average 6-8% reduction in the air-dry matter content. At harvest the average plant height rose from 40 to 60 cm and the number of spikes per m2 from 480 to 830, while the straw yield increased from 2.0 to 5.5 t/ha and the grain yield from 2.8 to 5.3 t/ha. 4. K fertilisation gave a mean grain yield surplus of 0.5 t/ha. Maximum grain yield was achieved with an annual N rate of 100 kg/ha, and AL-P 2O5 and AL-K2O supplies of around 200 mg/kg. Extreme over-fertilisation with N led to a yield loss of 0.5 t/ha. 5. Increasing N supplies reduced the ratio of the >2.5 mm seed fraction by 9% and increased the proportion of Grade III and refuse grain. When P supplies were satisfactory there was an increase in the valuable seed fractions, partially counterbalancing the negative effect of the N treatment. 6. The malting quality was influenced decisively by the N supplies. Compared with the N control soil, N fertilisation at a rate of 300 kg · ha-1 · year -1 led to an increase in the water-soluble N entering the brewage from 0.7 to 1.0%, the total N from 1.6 to 2.1% and the crude protein from 10 to 13-14%. The Kolbach number declined from 44 to 37% at annual N rates of 100 and 200 kg/ha. In these treatments there was a 3% reduction in the extract content and a lengthening of the saccharification time.

Original languageHungarian
Pages (from-to)409-421
Number of pages13
JournalNovenytermeles
Volume52
Issue number3-4
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2003

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Hordeum vulgare subsp. vulgare
malting barley
minerals
malting quality
grain yield
weeds
heading
Amaranthus blitoides
Oulema melanopus
barley
calcium ammonium nitrate
Stachys
opal
saccharification
malting
Chenopodium album
superphosphate
potassium chloride
spring barley
loam soils

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agronomy and Crop Science

Cite this

A mutrágyázás hatása a sörárpa (Hordeum distichon) termésére és minoségére. / Kádár, I.; Béndek, György; Radics, Läszlö.

In: Novenytermeles, Vol. 52, No. 3-4, 06.2003, p. 409-421.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Kádár, I. ; Béndek, György ; Radics, Läszlö. / A mutrágyázás hatása a sörárpa (Hordeum distichon) termésére és minoségére. In: Novenytermeles. 2003 ; Vol. 52, No. 3-4. pp. 409-421.
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abstract = "The effects of various N, P and K supply levels and their combinations on the development, weed infestation and yield of malting barley variety Opal and on the malting quality of the grain were examined by micromalting in 1986, in the 13th year of a long-term mineral fertilisation experiment set up on calcareous loamy chernozem soil. The soil of the growing site contained an average of 3{\%} humus, 5{\%} CaCO3 and 20{\%} clay, and was moderately well supplied with N and K, but poorly supplied with P and Zn. The experiment involved 4N × 4P × 4K = 64 treatments in 2 replications, giving a total of 128 plots. The mineral fertilisers were applied in the form of 25{\%} calcium ammonium nitrate, 18{\%} superphosphate and 50{\%} potassium chloride. The ripening period in July was characterised by drought. The main results were as follows: 1. Combined NP fertilisation increased the cover of the forecrop, mustard, in 1985 and of spring barley at the end of tillering in 1986 to 95{\%}, compared to 52{\%} in the control plot. The number of weed species in the mustard crop dropped from 10 to 5 and that in the barley from 6 to 1. In both years the dominant weed species were Amaranthus blitoides, Chenopodium album and Stachys annua. 2. Scoring in the heading stage for damage to the flag-leaf by Lema melanopus indicated 10{\%} damage in the control plot and 28{\%} in barley overfertilised with NP. 3. Compared with the control, joint fertilisation with N and P led to an increase in the aboveground green shoot mass from 7 to 18 t/ha at shooting and from 10 to 21 t/ha at heading, with an average 6-8{\%} reduction in the air-dry matter content. At harvest the average plant height rose from 40 to 60 cm and the number of spikes per m2 from 480 to 830, while the straw yield increased from 2.0 to 5.5 t/ha and the grain yield from 2.8 to 5.3 t/ha. 4. K fertilisation gave a mean grain yield surplus of 0.5 t/ha. Maximum grain yield was achieved with an annual N rate of 100 kg/ha, and AL-P 2O5 and AL-K2O supplies of around 200 mg/kg. Extreme over-fertilisation with N led to a yield loss of 0.5 t/ha. 5. Increasing N supplies reduced the ratio of the >2.5 mm seed fraction by 9{\%} and increased the proportion of Grade III and refuse grain. When P supplies were satisfactory there was an increase in the valuable seed fractions, partially counterbalancing the negative effect of the N treatment. 6. The malting quality was influenced decisively by the N supplies. Compared with the N control soil, N fertilisation at a rate of 300 kg · ha-1 · year -1 led to an increase in the water-soluble N entering the brewage from 0.7 to 1.0{\%}, the total N from 1.6 to 2.1{\%} and the crude protein from 10 to 13-14{\%}. The Kolbach number declined from 44 to 37{\%} at annual N rates of 100 and 200 kg/ha. In these treatments there was a 3{\%} reduction in the extract content and a lengthening of the saccharification time.",
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T1 - A mutrágyázás hatása a sörárpa (Hordeum distichon) termésére és minoségére

AU - Kádár, I.

AU - Béndek, György

AU - Radics, Läszlö

PY - 2003/6

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N2 - The effects of various N, P and K supply levels and their combinations on the development, weed infestation and yield of malting barley variety Opal and on the malting quality of the grain were examined by micromalting in 1986, in the 13th year of a long-term mineral fertilisation experiment set up on calcareous loamy chernozem soil. The soil of the growing site contained an average of 3% humus, 5% CaCO3 and 20% clay, and was moderately well supplied with N and K, but poorly supplied with P and Zn. The experiment involved 4N × 4P × 4K = 64 treatments in 2 replications, giving a total of 128 plots. The mineral fertilisers were applied in the form of 25% calcium ammonium nitrate, 18% superphosphate and 50% potassium chloride. The ripening period in July was characterised by drought. The main results were as follows: 1. Combined NP fertilisation increased the cover of the forecrop, mustard, in 1985 and of spring barley at the end of tillering in 1986 to 95%, compared to 52% in the control plot. The number of weed species in the mustard crop dropped from 10 to 5 and that in the barley from 6 to 1. In both years the dominant weed species were Amaranthus blitoides, Chenopodium album and Stachys annua. 2. Scoring in the heading stage for damage to the flag-leaf by Lema melanopus indicated 10% damage in the control plot and 28% in barley overfertilised with NP. 3. Compared with the control, joint fertilisation with N and P led to an increase in the aboveground green shoot mass from 7 to 18 t/ha at shooting and from 10 to 21 t/ha at heading, with an average 6-8% reduction in the air-dry matter content. At harvest the average plant height rose from 40 to 60 cm and the number of spikes per m2 from 480 to 830, while the straw yield increased from 2.0 to 5.5 t/ha and the grain yield from 2.8 to 5.3 t/ha. 4. K fertilisation gave a mean grain yield surplus of 0.5 t/ha. Maximum grain yield was achieved with an annual N rate of 100 kg/ha, and AL-P 2O5 and AL-K2O supplies of around 200 mg/kg. Extreme over-fertilisation with N led to a yield loss of 0.5 t/ha. 5. Increasing N supplies reduced the ratio of the >2.5 mm seed fraction by 9% and increased the proportion of Grade III and refuse grain. When P supplies were satisfactory there was an increase in the valuable seed fractions, partially counterbalancing the negative effect of the N treatment. 6. The malting quality was influenced decisively by the N supplies. Compared with the N control soil, N fertilisation at a rate of 300 kg · ha-1 · year -1 led to an increase in the water-soluble N entering the brewage from 0.7 to 1.0%, the total N from 1.6 to 2.1% and the crude protein from 10 to 13-14%. The Kolbach number declined from 44 to 37% at annual N rates of 100 and 200 kg/ha. In these treatments there was a 3% reduction in the extract content and a lengthening of the saccharification time.

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