The effect of microelement pollution at rates of 0, 30, 90 and 270 kg•ha-1 on winter barley was examined on calcareous sandy soil in the region between the rivers Danube and Tisza. The microelement salts were applied on a single occasion at the start of the experiment in spring 1995 in the form of Cr2(SO4)3, K 2Cr2O7, CuSO4, Pb(NO 3)2, Na2SeO3 and ZnSO4. The 24 treatments (6 elements×4 pollution rates) were each applied in three replications, giving a total of 72 plots, each measuring 7×5 = 35 m2. As generally observed on sandy soils, the growing site had a poor water regime, was prone to drought and was poorly supplied with macronutrients (NPK). The ploughed layer contained 0.7-1.0% humus and 2-3% CaCO3, and the groundwater was at a depth of 5-10 m. The whole experiment was treated each year with 100 kg•ha-1 each of N, P2O 5 and K2O active agents as basic fertilizer. The main results were as follows: - Due to the very dry weather in May and June the yields were very low. On uncontaminated soil the grain yield of winter barley was around 1.8 t•ha-1, while the total air-dry aboveground biomass only just exceeded 3 t•ha-1. In the 6th year of the experiment the carry-over effects of the 270 kg•ha-1 rates of Se and Zn proved to be toxic. This effect was felt mainly in the generative phase, with a 60-70% loss of grain yield. - In the Cr(III) treatment, the Cr content of the straw and grain did not rise significantly with the contamination rate, but in the Cr(VI) treatment the moderate accumulation was significant. Lead accumulation was only significant in the straw, remaining below the 0.1 mg•kg-1 detection limit in the grain even on contaminated soil. Compared with the control, there was a 2-2.5 times increase in Cu accumulation on average. The Zn content was 6-times higher in the straw and 3-times higher in the grain, while hyperaccumulation was recorded for Se in both plant organs (with a 470× increase in the concentration). The grain became unfit for human consumption in the Se treatment and at higher rates of Zn, and the straw for feeding purposes on soil treated with selenium. - On contaminated soil the maximum element uptake (g•ha-1) at harvest was as follows: Se 243, Zn 81, Cu 10, Cr and Pb 6. Assuming constant conditions, the phytoremediation of the soil would require 1111 years for Se, 3300 for Zn, 27,000 for Cu and 45,000 for Cr and Pb. - The specific element content of winter barley (1 t grain + the corresponding by-products) was found to be 28, 13, 28, 9 and 7 kg•t-1 for N, P2O5, K 2O, CaO and MgO, respectively. These data could be used as guidelines for the estimation of the nutrient requirements of winter barley by the extension service. - Soil analysis indicated that the NH4- acetate+EDTA-soluble Cr content increased in the 0-30 cm topsoil in the Cr(III) treatment, while in the Cr(VI) treatment the Cr maximum was detected below a depth of 260 cm and the whole soil profile was contaminated. Cu, Pb and Zn also accumulated in the topsoil, remaining at the application site even after the 6th year of the experiment. Like Cr(VI), the water-soluble Se could be detected throughout the 0-290 cm profile examined, so the total extent of the leaching zone could not be determined.
|Translated title of the contribution||Effect of microelement loads on winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grown on calcareous sandy soil|
|Number of pages||16|
|Journal||Agrokemia es Talajtan|
|Publication status||Published - Jun 1 2011|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Agronomy and Crop Science
- Soil Science