Meszezés és mutrágyázás hatása a talajra és növényre a 44 éves nyírlugosi tartamkísérletben

Translated title of the contribution: Effect of liming and mineral fertilization on the soil and plants in a 44-year long-term experiment in Nyírlugos

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Abstract

One of the oldest long-term mineral fertilization experiments in Hungary was set up in Nyírlugos in 1963 on acidic sandy brown forest soil with thin interstratified layers of colloid and sesquioxide accumulation. Characteristics of the site: pH (KCl) 4.6, humus 0.5-0.7%, CEC 3-4 meq/100 g in the ploughed layer. The topsoil was poor in all five macronutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg) and the groundwater depth was 2-3 m. Fertilizers were applied in the form of Ca-ammonium nitrate, superphosphate, potassium chloride, powdered limestone and dolomite. The conclusions drawn from the liming and mineral fertilization experiment with respect to the soil and plants can be summarized as follows: - As a response to long-term N fertilization the pH(KCl) value dropped from 4.3 in the unfertilized control to 3.5, while the application of 1 t/ha/year CaCO3 caused it to increase to 6.4 in the ploughed layer, where the value of exchangeable Ca2+ rose from 0.13 to 2.18 meq/100 g. In contrast, the value of Al3+ declined from 0.68 to 0.40 and that of Fe2+ from 0.43 to 0.15 meq/100 g. As a result of liming the cation exchange capacity of the soil (T value) rose from 3.3 to 3.6-3.8, the total exchangeable bases (S value) from 0.4 to 2.5 meq/100 g and the base saturation from 12% to 69%. - The effect of mineral fertilization, liming and soil acidification was characterized as the NH4-acetate + EDTA-soluble element contents. On this strongly acidic soil, the Ca content rose from 87 to 767 mg/kg as the result of liming, the Mg content from 18 to 97 mg/kg as the result of Mg fertilization, the Mn content from 8 to 36 mg/kg, the Sr content from 0.4 to 2.7 mg/kg, the Co content from 0.15 to 0.53 mg/kg and the Ni content from 0.10 to 0.19 mg/kg. - The fertilizer effects were time-dependent. In the first ten years of the experiment (1963-1972) substantial fertilizer effects (yield surpluses) were only observed for N fertilization. In the second decade (1973-1982) the N effects gradually declined to the unfertilized control level, and fertilizer effects were observed for the joint NP treatments in cereals and for the NK treatments in hoed crops. In the third decade (1983-1992) sunflower and tobacco responded well to the application of NPKCaMg. In the fourth decade (1993-2002) the maximum yields of continuous triticale were also recorded in the NPKCaMg treatment. Over the last few years (2003-2006) practically no triticale plants have survived on soils treated with 100-150 kg/ha/year N alone, as the soil became extremely acidic and other elements were exhausted. Soil fertility can be preserved if AL-P 2O5 and AL-K2O contents of 120-150 mg/kg are maintained in the top-soil, or if rates of approx. 1 t/ha/year ground dolomite are applied to ensure a pH(KCl) of 5.5-6.0, together with satisfactory levels of N fertilizer. - The quantities of N, K, P, Mn, Zn and Co increased in the straw and grain yields of triticale in the N3 treatment, which was strongly acidic and gave very low yields, while the Ca, Sr and Mo concentrations declined. In general liming caused the opposite effect. The availability of Mo in particular increased, while that of Co decreased in the grain, each by an order of magnitude on the high pH soil. Table 1. Mineral fertilizer and lime treatments in the long-term experiment in Nyírlugos, kg/ha/year. (1) Treatment level. (2) Rates, kg/ha/year. Note: in the form of 28% calcium ammonium nitrate, 18% superphosphate, 60% potassium chloride, 95% ground limestone and ground dolomite containing 15% Mg. Table 2. Effect of mineral fertilizer and lime treatments on some soil characteristics of the ploughed layer of the sandy brown forest soil with thin interstratified layers of colloid and sesquioxide accumulation in the 44th year of the experiment (Nyírlugos, 2006). (1) Treatment code. a) Control; b) LSD5%; c) Mean. (2) Hydrolytic acidity, y1. (3) Humus, %. (4) NH 4-acetate+EDTA-soluble P2O5 and K2O, mg/kg. Table 3. Effect of mineral fertilizer and lime treatments on the exchangeable cation content of the ploughed layer of the sandy brown forest soil with thin interstratified layers of colloid and sesquioxide accumulation in the 44th year of the experiment (Nyírlugos, 2006). (1): See Table 2. (2) Exchangeable cations, meq/100 g soil. Note: Value of Mn2+ was 0.001-0.005 meq/100 g in unlimed soil and 0.001 meq/100 g or below the detection limit in limed soil. Table 4. Effect of mineral fertilizer and lime treatments on the adsorption conditions of the ploughed layer of the sandy brown forest soil with thin interstratified layers of colloid and sesquioxide accumulation in the 44th year of the experiment (Nyírlugos, 2006). (1): See Table 2. (2) Cation exchange capacity (T value). (3) Total exchangeable cations (S value). (4) Base saturation (V%). (5) As a % of the S value. Table 5. Effect of mineral fertilizer and lime treatments on the NH 4-acetate+EDTA-soluble element content of the ploughed layer of the sandy brown forest soil with thin interstratified layers of colloid and sesquioxide accumulation in the 44th year of the experiment (Nyírlugos, 2006). (1): See Table 2. Note: mg/kg on average, irrespective of the treatment. (Contents of Cr, B and Cd tended to be higher on limed plots.) Table 6. Rainfall distribution (mm) between 1999 and 2006, and the 50-year mean (Nyírlugos). (1) Period. a) Total; b) Annual sum; c) During the vegetation period (Oct.-Jun.). (2) Experimental years. (3) 50-year means. Table 7. Effect of mineral fertilizer and lime treatments on the yield of continuous triticale (t/ha air-dry matter) in the 9th-16th year of monoculture, the 37th-44th year of the experiment (Nyírlugos). (1) Treatment: see Table 2. (2) Grain. (3) Straw. Table 8. Effect of mineral fertilizer and lime treatments on the K, N, Ca, P, S, Mg, Mn and Sr contents of air-dry triticale at harvest in 2006 (Nyírlugos). (1) Treatment: see Table 2. A. Grain. B. Straw. Table 9. Effect of mineral fertilizer and lime treatments on the Ba, Zn, B, Cu, Pb, Ni, Mo and Co contents of air-dry triticale at harvest in 2006 (Nyírlugos). (1) and A, B: see Table 8.

Translated title of the contributionEffect of liming and mineral fertilization on the soil and plants in a 44-year long-term experiment in Nyírlugos
Original languageHungarian
Pages (from-to)255-270
Number of pages16
JournalAgrokemia es Talajtan
Volume56
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 1 2007

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agronomy and Crop Science
  • Soil Science

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