Klíma-, csapadékváltozások és a mutrágyázás hatása a rozs (Secale cereale L.) termésére monokultúrában

Translated title of the contribution: Effect of climate and precipitation changes and mineral fertilisation on the yield of rye (Secale cereale L.) in a monoculture

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

A long-term experiment was set up on calcareous sandy soil in Orbottyán in autumn 1959 in order to study the dynamics of long-term mineral fertilisation in a monoculture, using rye as indicator plant. When the experiment was commenced, the experiment soil had an average humus content of 0.6-1.0%, pH 7.5-7.8, CaCO3 content 3-7%, AL-soluble P 2O5 content 40-60 mg · kg-1 and AL-solublc K2O content 50-100 mg · kg-1 in the ploughed layer. The experiment consisted often treatments in five replications, giving a total of 50 plots arranged in a Latin square design. The gross plot size was 35 m□. From the 1st to the 25th year the fertilisation rates were 0, 50, 100 kg · ha-1 · year-1 nitrogen, 0, 54 kg · ha-1 · year-1 P2O 5 and 0, 80 kg · ha-1 · year-1 K2O, and their combinations. From the 26th year onwards these rates were 0, 120 kg · ha-1 · year-1 N, 0, 60, 120 kg · ha-1 · year-1 P2O 5 and 0, 60, 120 kg · ha-1 · year -1 K2O. The major results were as follows: In average years the yield in the control plots stabilised at around 0.8 t · ha -1. The yield doubled (1.8-1.9 t · ha-1) in the N, NP and NK treatments, while the full NPK dose gave the maximum yield of 2.1 t · ha-1. In dry years yields of 0.7 t · ha-1 could be harvested in the control plots. There was a yield reduction of 13% compared with the many years' mean. Yield depressions of 33, 16, 21 and 20% were caused by drought in the N, NP, NK and NPK treatments. In wet years the yield was little more than 0.5 t · ha-1 (0.6 t · ha -1) in the control plots, representing a yield loss of 25% compared with average years. The N, NP, NK and NPK treatments led to yield depressions of 28, 26, 26 and 26%. Rye grown in a monoculture had approx. 5% less tolerance of wet years than of drought. Depending on the nutrient supplies, significant quadratic correlations were observed between the rainfall quantity and the yield (0: R = 0.7489***, N: R = 0.8974***, NP: R = 0.8020***, NK: R = 0.7370***, NPK: R = 0.9047***). The increase in grain yield per mm rainfall during the vegetation period ranged from 3.0 to 6.4 kg · ha-1 in the case of optimum rainfall supplies, while the quantity of rainfall during the vegetation period required for the production of 1 kg air-dry yield ranged from 1529 to 3360 litres in the case of maximum yield. Based on the meteorological database for the 44 years of the long-term experiment (1961-2004) the frequency of years in which the rainfall was optimum for various levels of nutrient supply was as follows: control: 2%, N: 7%, NP: 7%, NK: 9%, NPK: 7%, giving an average of 6% over the treatments. This suggests that the occurrence of optimum rainfall supplies and the possibility of achieving optimum yields in a rye monoculture will decline in the future. The yield average of rye grown in a monoculture on calcareous soil (Orbottyán) was 86% less than that achieved in a biculturc on acidic soil (Nyírlugos) under the same fertilisation and rainfall conditions.

Original languageHungarian
Pages (from-to)277-299
Number of pages23
JournalNovenytermeles
Volume54
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2005

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Secale cereale
rye
minerals
climate
rain
long term experiments
calcareous soils
drought
vegetation
nutrients
humus
acid soils
sandy soils
indicator species

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agronomy and Crop Science

Cite this

Klíma-, csapadékváltozások és a mutrágyázás hatása a rozs (Secale cereale L.) termésére monokultúrában. / Márton, L.

In: Novenytermeles, Vol. 54, No. 4, 2005, p. 277-299.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{7547494cbb66420b92541e98640c86c5,
title = "Kl{\'i}ma-, csapad{\'e}kv{\'a}ltoz{\'a}sok {\'e}s a mutr{\'a}gy{\'a}z{\'a}s hat{\'a}sa a rozs (Secale cereale L.) term{\'e}s{\'e}re monokult{\'u}r{\'a}ban",
abstract = "A long-term experiment was set up on calcareous sandy soil in Orbotty{\'a}n in autumn 1959 in order to study the dynamics of long-term mineral fertilisation in a monoculture, using rye as indicator plant. When the experiment was commenced, the experiment soil had an average humus content of 0.6-1.0{\%}, pH 7.5-7.8, CaCO3 content 3-7{\%}, AL-soluble P 2O5 content 40-60 mg · kg-1 and AL-solublc K2O content 50-100 mg · kg-1 in the ploughed layer. The experiment consisted often treatments in five replications, giving a total of 50 plots arranged in a Latin square design. The gross plot size was 35 m□. From the 1st to the 25th year the fertilisation rates were 0, 50, 100 kg · ha-1 · year-1 nitrogen, 0, 54 kg · ha-1 · year-1 P2O 5 and 0, 80 kg · ha-1 · year-1 K2O, and their combinations. From the 26th year onwards these rates were 0, 120 kg · ha-1 · year-1 N, 0, 60, 120 kg · ha-1 · year-1 P2O 5 and 0, 60, 120 kg · ha-1 · year -1 K2O. The major results were as follows: In average years the yield in the control plots stabilised at around 0.8 t · ha -1. The yield doubled (1.8-1.9 t · ha-1) in the N, NP and NK treatments, while the full NPK dose gave the maximum yield of 2.1 t · ha-1. In dry years yields of 0.7 t · ha-1 could be harvested in the control plots. There was a yield reduction of 13{\%} compared with the many years' mean. Yield depressions of 33, 16, 21 and 20{\%} were caused by drought in the N, NP, NK and NPK treatments. In wet years the yield was little more than 0.5 t · ha-1 (0.6 t · ha -1) in the control plots, representing a yield loss of 25{\%} compared with average years. The N, NP, NK and NPK treatments led to yield depressions of 28, 26, 26 and 26{\%}. Rye grown in a monoculture had approx. 5{\%} less tolerance of wet years than of drought. Depending on the nutrient supplies, significant quadratic correlations were observed between the rainfall quantity and the yield (0: R = 0.7489***, N: R = 0.8974***, NP: R = 0.8020***, NK: R = 0.7370***, NPK: R = 0.9047***). The increase in grain yield per mm rainfall during the vegetation period ranged from 3.0 to 6.4 kg · ha-1 in the case of optimum rainfall supplies, while the quantity of rainfall during the vegetation period required for the production of 1 kg air-dry yield ranged from 1529 to 3360 litres in the case of maximum yield. Based on the meteorological database for the 44 years of the long-term experiment (1961-2004) the frequency of years in which the rainfall was optimum for various levels of nutrient supply was as follows: control: 2{\%}, N: 7{\%}, NP: 7{\%}, NK: 9{\%}, NPK: 7{\%}, giving an average of 6{\%} over the treatments. This suggests that the occurrence of optimum rainfall supplies and the possibility of achieving optimum yields in a rye monoculture will decline in the future. The yield average of rye grown in a monoculture on calcareous soil (Orbotty{\'a}n) was 86{\%} less than that achieved in a biculturc on acidic soil (Ny{\'i}rlugos) under the same fertilisation and rainfall conditions.",
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author = "L. M{\'a}rton",
year = "2005",
language = "Hungarian",
volume = "54",
pages = "277--299",
journal = "Novenytermeles",
issn = "0546-8191",
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number = "4",

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TY - JOUR

T1 - Klíma-, csapadékváltozások és a mutrágyázás hatása a rozs (Secale cereale L.) termésére monokultúrában

AU - Márton, L.

PY - 2005

Y1 - 2005

N2 - A long-term experiment was set up on calcareous sandy soil in Orbottyán in autumn 1959 in order to study the dynamics of long-term mineral fertilisation in a monoculture, using rye as indicator plant. When the experiment was commenced, the experiment soil had an average humus content of 0.6-1.0%, pH 7.5-7.8, CaCO3 content 3-7%, AL-soluble P 2O5 content 40-60 mg · kg-1 and AL-solublc K2O content 50-100 mg · kg-1 in the ploughed layer. The experiment consisted often treatments in five replications, giving a total of 50 plots arranged in a Latin square design. The gross plot size was 35 m□. From the 1st to the 25th year the fertilisation rates were 0, 50, 100 kg · ha-1 · year-1 nitrogen, 0, 54 kg · ha-1 · year-1 P2O 5 and 0, 80 kg · ha-1 · year-1 K2O, and their combinations. From the 26th year onwards these rates were 0, 120 kg · ha-1 · year-1 N, 0, 60, 120 kg · ha-1 · year-1 P2O 5 and 0, 60, 120 kg · ha-1 · year -1 K2O. The major results were as follows: In average years the yield in the control plots stabilised at around 0.8 t · ha -1. The yield doubled (1.8-1.9 t · ha-1) in the N, NP and NK treatments, while the full NPK dose gave the maximum yield of 2.1 t · ha-1. In dry years yields of 0.7 t · ha-1 could be harvested in the control plots. There was a yield reduction of 13% compared with the many years' mean. Yield depressions of 33, 16, 21 and 20% were caused by drought in the N, NP, NK and NPK treatments. In wet years the yield was little more than 0.5 t · ha-1 (0.6 t · ha -1) in the control plots, representing a yield loss of 25% compared with average years. The N, NP, NK and NPK treatments led to yield depressions of 28, 26, 26 and 26%. Rye grown in a monoculture had approx. 5% less tolerance of wet years than of drought. Depending on the nutrient supplies, significant quadratic correlations were observed between the rainfall quantity and the yield (0: R = 0.7489***, N: R = 0.8974***, NP: R = 0.8020***, NK: R = 0.7370***, NPK: R = 0.9047***). The increase in grain yield per mm rainfall during the vegetation period ranged from 3.0 to 6.4 kg · ha-1 in the case of optimum rainfall supplies, while the quantity of rainfall during the vegetation period required for the production of 1 kg air-dry yield ranged from 1529 to 3360 litres in the case of maximum yield. Based on the meteorological database for the 44 years of the long-term experiment (1961-2004) the frequency of years in which the rainfall was optimum for various levels of nutrient supply was as follows: control: 2%, N: 7%, NP: 7%, NK: 9%, NPK: 7%, giving an average of 6% over the treatments. This suggests that the occurrence of optimum rainfall supplies and the possibility of achieving optimum yields in a rye monoculture will decline in the future. The yield average of rye grown in a monoculture on calcareous soil (Orbottyán) was 86% less than that achieved in a biculturc on acidic soil (Nyírlugos) under the same fertilisation and rainfall conditions.

AB - A long-term experiment was set up on calcareous sandy soil in Orbottyán in autumn 1959 in order to study the dynamics of long-term mineral fertilisation in a monoculture, using rye as indicator plant. When the experiment was commenced, the experiment soil had an average humus content of 0.6-1.0%, pH 7.5-7.8, CaCO3 content 3-7%, AL-soluble P 2O5 content 40-60 mg · kg-1 and AL-solublc K2O content 50-100 mg · kg-1 in the ploughed layer. The experiment consisted often treatments in five replications, giving a total of 50 plots arranged in a Latin square design. The gross plot size was 35 m□. From the 1st to the 25th year the fertilisation rates were 0, 50, 100 kg · ha-1 · year-1 nitrogen, 0, 54 kg · ha-1 · year-1 P2O 5 and 0, 80 kg · ha-1 · year-1 K2O, and their combinations. From the 26th year onwards these rates were 0, 120 kg · ha-1 · year-1 N, 0, 60, 120 kg · ha-1 · year-1 P2O 5 and 0, 60, 120 kg · ha-1 · year -1 K2O. The major results were as follows: In average years the yield in the control plots stabilised at around 0.8 t · ha -1. The yield doubled (1.8-1.9 t · ha-1) in the N, NP and NK treatments, while the full NPK dose gave the maximum yield of 2.1 t · ha-1. In dry years yields of 0.7 t · ha-1 could be harvested in the control plots. There was a yield reduction of 13% compared with the many years' mean. Yield depressions of 33, 16, 21 and 20% were caused by drought in the N, NP, NK and NPK treatments. In wet years the yield was little more than 0.5 t · ha-1 (0.6 t · ha -1) in the control plots, representing a yield loss of 25% compared with average years. The N, NP, NK and NPK treatments led to yield depressions of 28, 26, 26 and 26%. Rye grown in a monoculture had approx. 5% less tolerance of wet years than of drought. Depending on the nutrient supplies, significant quadratic correlations were observed between the rainfall quantity and the yield (0: R = 0.7489***, N: R = 0.8974***, NP: R = 0.8020***, NK: R = 0.7370***, NPK: R = 0.9047***). The increase in grain yield per mm rainfall during the vegetation period ranged from 3.0 to 6.4 kg · ha-1 in the case of optimum rainfall supplies, while the quantity of rainfall during the vegetation period required for the production of 1 kg air-dry yield ranged from 1529 to 3360 litres in the case of maximum yield. Based on the meteorological database for the 44 years of the long-term experiment (1961-2004) the frequency of years in which the rainfall was optimum for various levels of nutrient supply was as follows: control: 2%, N: 7%, NP: 7%, NK: 9%, NPK: 7%, giving an average of 6% over the treatments. This suggests that the occurrence of optimum rainfall supplies and the possibility of achieving optimum yields in a rye monoculture will decline in the future. The yield average of rye grown in a monoculture on calcareous soil (Orbottyán) was 86% less than that achieved in a biculturc on acidic soil (Nyírlugos) under the same fertilisation and rainfall conditions.

KW - Mineral fertilisation

KW - Monoculture

KW - Rainfall change

KW - Rye

KW - Yield

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