Klíma-, csapadékváltozások és a mutrágyázás hatása a rozs (Secale cereale L.) termésére monokultúrában

Translated title of the contribution: Effect of climate and precipitation changes and mineral fertilisation on the yield of rye (Secale cereale L.) in a monoculture

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Abstract

A long-term experiment was set up on calcareous sandy soil in Orbottyán in autumn 1959 in order to study the dynamics of long-term mineral fertilisation in a monoculture, using rye as indicator plant. When the experiment was commenced, the experiment soil had an average humus content of 0.6-1.0%, pH 7.5-7.8, CaCO3 content 3-7%, AL-soluble P 2O5 content 40-60 mg · kg-1 and AL-solublc K2O content 50-100 mg · kg-1 in the ploughed layer. The experiment consisted often treatments in five replications, giving a total of 50 plots arranged in a Latin square design. The gross plot size was 35 m□. From the 1st to the 25th year the fertilisation rates were 0, 50, 100 kg · ha-1 · year-1 nitrogen, 0, 54 kg · ha-1 · year-1 P2O 5 and 0, 80 kg · ha-1 · year-1 K2O, and their combinations. From the 26th year onwards these rates were 0, 120 kg · ha-1 · year-1 N, 0, 60, 120 kg · ha-1 · year-1 P2O 5 and 0, 60, 120 kg · ha-1 · year -1 K2O. The major results were as follows: In average years the yield in the control plots stabilised at around 0.8 t · ha -1. The yield doubled (1.8-1.9 t · ha-1) in the N, NP and NK treatments, while the full NPK dose gave the maximum yield of 2.1 t · ha-1. In dry years yields of 0.7 t · ha-1 could be harvested in the control plots. There was a yield reduction of 13% compared with the many years' mean. Yield depressions of 33, 16, 21 and 20% were caused by drought in the N, NP, NK and NPK treatments. In wet years the yield was little more than 0.5 t · ha-1 (0.6 t · ha -1) in the control plots, representing a yield loss of 25% compared with average years. The N, NP, NK and NPK treatments led to yield depressions of 28, 26, 26 and 26%. Rye grown in a monoculture had approx. 5% less tolerance of wet years than of drought. Depending on the nutrient supplies, significant quadratic correlations were observed between the rainfall quantity and the yield (0: R = 0.7489***, N: R = 0.8974***, NP: R = 0.8020***, NK: R = 0.7370***, NPK: R = 0.9047***). The increase in grain yield per mm rainfall during the vegetation period ranged from 3.0 to 6.4 kg · ha-1 in the case of optimum rainfall supplies, while the quantity of rainfall during the vegetation period required for the production of 1 kg air-dry yield ranged from 1529 to 3360 litres in the case of maximum yield. Based on the meteorological database for the 44 years of the long-term experiment (1961-2004) the frequency of years in which the rainfall was optimum for various levels of nutrient supply was as follows: control: 2%, N: 7%, NP: 7%, NK: 9%, NPK: 7%, giving an average of 6% over the treatments. This suggests that the occurrence of optimum rainfall supplies and the possibility of achieving optimum yields in a rye monoculture will decline in the future. The yield average of rye grown in a monoculture on calcareous soil (Orbottyán) was 86% less than that achieved in a biculturc on acidic soil (Nyírlugos) under the same fertilisation and rainfall conditions.

Translated title of the contributionEffect of climate and precipitation changes and mineral fertilisation on the yield of rye (Secale cereale L.) in a monoculture
Original languageHungarian
Pages (from-to)277-299
Number of pages23
JournalNovenytermeles
Volume54
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Dec 1 2005

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agronomy and Crop Science

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