A long-term experiment was set up on calcareous sandy soil in Orbottyán in autumn 1959 in order to study the dynamics of long-term mineral fertilisation in a monoculture, using rye as indicator plant. When the experiment was commenced, the experiment soil had an average humus content of 0.6-1.0%, pH 7.5-7.8, CaCO3 content 3-7%, AL-soluble P 2O5 content 40-60 mg · kg-1 and AL-solublc K2O content 50-100 mg · kg-1 in the ploughed layer. The experiment consisted often treatments in five replications, giving a total of 50 plots arranged in a Latin square design. The gross plot size was 35 m□. From the 1st to the 25th year the fertilisation rates were 0, 50, 100 kg · ha-1 · year-1 nitrogen, 0, 54 kg · ha-1 · year-1 P2O 5 and 0, 80 kg · ha-1 · year-1 K2O, and their combinations. From the 26th year onwards these rates were 0, 120 kg · ha-1 · year-1 N, 0, 60, 120 kg · ha-1 · year-1 P2O 5 and 0, 60, 120 kg · ha-1 · year -1 K2O. The major results were as follows: In average years the yield in the control plots stabilised at around 0.8 t · ha -1. The yield doubled (1.8-1.9 t · ha-1) in the N, NP and NK treatments, while the full NPK dose gave the maximum yield of 2.1 t · ha-1. In dry years yields of 0.7 t · ha-1 could be harvested in the control plots. There was a yield reduction of 13% compared with the many years' mean. Yield depressions of 33, 16, 21 and 20% were caused by drought in the N, NP, NK and NPK treatments. In wet years the yield was little more than 0.5 t · ha-1 (0.6 t · ha -1) in the control plots, representing a yield loss of 25% compared with average years. The N, NP, NK and NPK treatments led to yield depressions of 28, 26, 26 and 26%. Rye grown in a monoculture had approx. 5% less tolerance of wet years than of drought. Depending on the nutrient supplies, significant quadratic correlations were observed between the rainfall quantity and the yield (0: R = 0.7489***, N: R = 0.8974***, NP: R = 0.8020***, NK: R = 0.7370***, NPK: R = 0.9047***). The increase in grain yield per mm rainfall during the vegetation period ranged from 3.0 to 6.4 kg · ha-1 in the case of optimum rainfall supplies, while the quantity of rainfall during the vegetation period required for the production of 1 kg air-dry yield ranged from 1529 to 3360 litres in the case of maximum yield. Based on the meteorological database for the 44 years of the long-term experiment (1961-2004) the frequency of years in which the rainfall was optimum for various levels of nutrient supply was as follows: control: 2%, N: 7%, NP: 7%, NK: 9%, NPK: 7%, giving an average of 6% over the treatments. This suggests that the occurrence of optimum rainfall supplies and the possibility of achieving optimum yields in a rye monoculture will decline in the future. The yield average of rye grown in a monoculture on calcareous soil (Orbottyán) was 86% less than that achieved in a biculturc on acidic soil (Nyírlugos) under the same fertilisation and rainfall conditions.
|Translated title of the contribution||Effect of climate and precipitation changes and mineral fertilisation on the yield of rye (Secale cereale L.) in a monoculture|
|Number of pages||23|
|Publication status||Published - Dec 1 2005|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Agronomy and Crop Science