Bioszén hatása a talaj-növény-mikróba rendszerre: elõnyök és aggályok-Szemle

Translated title of the contribution: Effect of biochar on the soil-plant-microbe system: Advantages and concerns-A Review

Tamás Kocsis, Borbála Biró

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

7 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Data in the literature suggest that biochar products could be applied on a wide scale to influence soil-plant-microbe interactions. Biochar may improve physical and chemi-cal soil properties, soil water retention, clay and organic matter contents, pH levels, N and P availability, quantities of other meso-and micro-nutrients and, due to its high porosity, soil aeration and the content and ratio of oxygen. The positive effect on plant nutrition may be manifested both directly and indirectly. The more efficient growth of microorganisms in biochar-treated soils is well docu-mented. Biochar protects the soil surface from drying out, provides a more oxygen-rich environment and supplies the micro-organisms with adsorbed organic materials, im-proving the growth of both bacteria and fungi. In addition to soil properties, a higher microbial population is also promoted by higher temperature and optimal pH levels. Publications on the integration of biochar into crop production technologies report yield increases, at least in the short term. However, the quantities and activity of the micro-symbiont bacteria and P-mobilizing mycorrhizal fungi that are beneficial for crop pro-duction exhibit strong dose-and product-dependence. The efficiency of symbiosis may deteriorate in the case of environmental stress. The application of unnecessarily high rates is a cause for concern due to their nutritional and/or water-binding properties, particularly as this may lead to the multiplication of soil-borne pathogenic microorgan-isms. Biochar could therefore be a valuable soil amendment, but it can only be exploited safely if applied with caution after the detailed physical, chemical and biological analy-sis of the soil. Table 1. Fate of initial feedstock mass as the result of different pyrolysis processes (IEA 2006). (1) Method of pyrolysis. (2) Liquid, biofuel. (3) Solid, biochar. (4) Gase-ous, biogas. a) Rapid pyrolysis at moderate temperature for a short time, b) Slow pyro-lysis at low temperature using hot steam for a long period, c) Slow heating at low tem-perature for a long period, (d) Gasification at high temperature for a long period. Table 2. Main physico-chemical properties of the Columbian soil "Terra Preta" and of neighbouring control soils (data from SOLOMON et al. 2007, LIANG et al. 2006). (1) Location. (2) Soil. (3) Fertile layer, cm. (4) Age. (5) Clay. Table 3. Properties of biochar-treated soil and its effect of the main symbiotic mi-crobial groups (data from LEHMANN et al., 2011). (1) Mechanism, effect. (2) Bacteria. (3) Fungi. Note: + Positive effect,-negative effect, 0 no change,? unknown reaction. Figure 1. Effect of biochar on maize grain yields (n=3). Yield increases are ex-pressed as a %, different letters within a column indicate significant differences (p<0.05) between means (MAJOR et al., 2010).

Original languageHungarian
Pages (from-to)257-272
Number of pages16
JournalAgrokemia es Talajtan
Volume64
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2015

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ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agronomy and Crop Science
  • Soil Science

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