Effect of 6-hydroxydopamine treatment on kynurenine aminotransferase-I (KAT-I) immunoreactivity of neurons and glial cells in the rat substantia nigra.

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Abstract

Parkinson's disease (PD), a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, is characterized by a preferential loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNPC). Neurons in the SNPC are known to express tyrosine hydroxylase (TH); therefore, in a commonly used PD model, 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), a selective catecholamine neurotoxin, induces neuronal death in SNPC. We have shown with immunohistochemical techniques that kynurenine aminotransferase-I (KAT-I), the enzyme taking part in the formation of kynurenic acid (KYNA)--the only known endogenous selective NMDA receptor antagonist and a potent neuroprotective agent--is also expressed in the rat SNPC. We found that KAT-I and TH co-exist in the very same neurons of SNPC and that 6-OHDA injected into the lateral ventricle produced loss of the majority of nigral neurons. Densitometric analysis proved that, in consequence of 6-OHDA treatment, not only TH but also KAT-I immunoreactivity diminished considerably in the remaining SNPC neurons. Astrocytes in the substantia nigra were found to express KAT-I under normal conditions; the amount of this enzyme increased after administration of 6-OHDA, whereas microglial cells became KAT-I immunoreactive only after 6-OHDA treatment. Since intrinsic KYNA in SNPC neurons is perceptibly insufficient to protect them from the deleterious effect of 6-OHDA, it is hypothesized that biochemical approaches which increase KYNA content of the central nervous system might prevent the deleterious effect of 6-OHDA and, supposedly, also the neuronal degradation characterizing PD.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)127-137
Number of pages11
JournalActa neuropathologica
Volume112
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2006

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ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience

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