The ecdysteroid titre in Galleria larvae normally follows either a short larval cycle, which is characterized by a single peak on day 2, or a long metamorphic cycle, which includes a small peak on day 6 and a large one on day 7. Intermediate cycles and moult induction with reduced ecdysteroid concentrations occur under experimental conditions. The cycles and peaks are initiated and, until the brain critical period, driven by prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH), while juvenile hormone (JH) titre determines which type of cycle will be activated. In larval development JH stimulates PTTH release but the metamorphic programme of neuroendocrine regulations involves blocking PTTH production by JH. This hormone then causes an interruption of the ecdysteroid cycle and extension of the last larval instar.
- Neuroendocrine regulations
- cycles of ecdysteroid concentration
- juvenile hormone