Early pregnancy diagnosis in cattle by means of linear-array real-time ultrasound scanning of the uterus and a qualitative and quantitative milk progesterone test

M. C. Pieterse, O. Szenci, A. H. Willemse, C. S A Bajcsy, S. J. Dieleman, M. A M Taverne

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

76 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We compared three methods for diagnosing early pregnancy in cattle: 1) a trans-rectal ultrasound scan of the uterus, 2) a cow-side enzymeimmunoassay (EIA) milk progesterone test 3) a radioimmunoassay (RIA) milk progesterone test. Scanning of the uterus was performed in 148 cows. These cows were not detected in estrus before scanning, which took place between Days 21 and 33 after insemination (AI). A considerable difference was noted between the reliability of the scannings performed at an early stage (Days 21 to 25) and those performed at a later stage (Days 26 to 33). The sensitivity and specificity of the ultrasound examination between Days 21 and 25 were only 44.8% and 82.3%, respectively, but were 97.7% and 87.8% between Days 26 and 33, respectively. Milk samples were collected on the day of AI. (Day 0) and 21 days later. Samples that were positive in the EIA test always contained more than 1 ng/ml progesterone (P4); however, 20% of the negative EIA samples contained also more than 1 ng/ml P4. Only 59% of the animals showing a negative EIA test on Day 0 and a positive test on Day 21, indicating pregnancy, calved, while 16% of the cows with a negative test on Day 0 and Day 21, indicating nonpregnancy, turned out to be pregnant. Of the 82 animals with P4 levels lower than 1 ng/ml on Day 0 and higher than 1 ng/ml on Day 21, only 61.0% calved. All 14 cows with low levels both on Day 0 and Day 21, indicating nonpregnancy, were found to be not pregnant. The influence of both early embryonic death and the accumulation of intrauterine fluids on the accuracy of these tests are discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)697-707
Number of pages11
JournalTheriogenology
Volume33
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1990

Fingerprint

pregnancy diagnosis
uterus
Uterus
Progesterone
Early Diagnosis
progesterone
Milk
Insemination
milk
Pregnancy
cattle
cows
testing
Estrus
Radioimmunoassay
insemination
Sensitivity and Specificity
pregnancy
embryonic mortality
radioimmunoassays

Keywords

  • cow
  • milk progesterone test
  • pregnancy diagnosis
  • ultrasound scanning

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • veterinary(all)

Cite this

Early pregnancy diagnosis in cattle by means of linear-array real-time ultrasound scanning of the uterus and a qualitative and quantitative milk progesterone test. / Pieterse, M. C.; Szenci, O.; Willemse, A. H.; Bajcsy, C. S A; Dieleman, S. J.; Taverne, M. A M.

In: Theriogenology, Vol. 33, No. 3, 1990, p. 697-707.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Pieterse, M. C. ; Szenci, O. ; Willemse, A. H. ; Bajcsy, C. S A ; Dieleman, S. J. ; Taverne, M. A M. / Early pregnancy diagnosis in cattle by means of linear-array real-time ultrasound scanning of the uterus and a qualitative and quantitative milk progesterone test. In: Theriogenology. 1990 ; Vol. 33, No. 3. pp. 697-707.
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AB - We compared three methods for diagnosing early pregnancy in cattle: 1) a trans-rectal ultrasound scan of the uterus, 2) a cow-side enzymeimmunoassay (EIA) milk progesterone test 3) a radioimmunoassay (RIA) milk progesterone test. Scanning of the uterus was performed in 148 cows. These cows were not detected in estrus before scanning, which took place between Days 21 and 33 after insemination (AI). A considerable difference was noted between the reliability of the scannings performed at an early stage (Days 21 to 25) and those performed at a later stage (Days 26 to 33). The sensitivity and specificity of the ultrasound examination between Days 21 and 25 were only 44.8% and 82.3%, respectively, but were 97.7% and 87.8% between Days 26 and 33, respectively. Milk samples were collected on the day of AI. (Day 0) and 21 days later. Samples that were positive in the EIA test always contained more than 1 ng/ml progesterone (P4); however, 20% of the negative EIA samples contained also more than 1 ng/ml P4. Only 59% of the animals showing a negative EIA test on Day 0 and a positive test on Day 21, indicating pregnancy, calved, while 16% of the cows with a negative test on Day 0 and Day 21, indicating nonpregnancy, turned out to be pregnant. Of the 82 animals with P4 levels lower than 1 ng/ml on Day 0 and higher than 1 ng/ml on Day 21, only 61.0% calved. All 14 cows with low levels both on Day 0 and Day 21, indicating nonpregnancy, were found to be not pregnant. The influence of both early embryonic death and the accumulation of intrauterine fluids on the accuracy of these tests are discussed.

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