Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT)–associated thrombotic microangiopathy (TA-TMA) is a multifactorial complication, and its prediction is largely unresolved. Our aim was to analyze changes of complement profile after HSCT to identify potential markers of TA-TMA development. Thirty-three consecutive pediatric patients (9.6 ± 4.4 years old) who underwent allogeneic HSCT due to malignant (n = 17) or nonmalignant (n = 16) indications were included in this study. Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was diagnosed using Glucksberg criteria, viral reactivation was monitored, 5 different TA-TMA diagnostic criteria were applied, and all important clinical and laboratory parameters of TA-TMA activity were registered. Complement pathway activities, components and terminal pathway activation marker (sC5b-9) levels were systematically measured before transplantation and on days 28, 56, and 100 after HSCT. During the first 100 days after HSCT, 1 of 33 patients died (day 50, multiple organ failure), whereas 10 subjects met the criteria for TA-TMA, typically on day 61 (range, 16 to 98 days). TA-TMA was preceded by acute GVHD in 3 of 10 patients, by viral reactivation in 2 of 10, or by both in 4 of 10 cases. Baseline sC5b-9 levels did not differ in patients without (200 [interquartile range, 144 to 266] ng/mL), or with (208 [interquartile range, 166 to 271] ng/mL) subsequent TA-TMA; however, on day 28 significant differences were observed (201 [interquartile range, 185 to 290] ng/mL versus 411 [interquartile range, 337 to 471] ng/mL; P =.004). Importantly, all 10 patients with TMA showed increase in sC5b-9 level from baseline level to day 28, whereas in patients without TMA the same tendency was observed for only 9 of 23 patients (P =.031). No additional complement parameters were closely associated with the development of TA-TMA. Development of TA-TMA occurred in 30% of our patients, typically after GVHD and/or viral reactivation. However, early raise of sC5b-9 activation marker was predictive for later development of TA-TMA, and should therefore be considered as an alarming sign necessitating a careful monitoring of all TA-TMA activity markers. Further studies enrolling a higher number of patients are necessary to determine if terminal pathway activation is an independent predictor of TA-TMA.
- Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
- Transplant-associated thrombotic microangiopathy
ASJC Scopus subject areas