Dysfunctional core beliefs, perceived parenting behavior and psychopathology in gender identity disorder: A comparison of male-to-female, female-to-male transsexual and nontranssexual control subjects

Lajos Simon, Unoka Zsolt, Dora Fogd, Pál Czobor

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

46 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Research into the association between Gender Identity Disorder (GID) and psychological disturbances as well as on its relation with parenting experiences yielded mixed results, with different patterns for Male-to-Female (MF) and Female-to-Male (FM) transsexual subjects. We investigated vulnerability markers of maladjustment and their possible origins in MF and FM transsexuals by examining maladaptive core beliefs and parenting behaviors thought to be specifically related to them. Methods: Dysfunctional core beliefs, parenting experiences and psychiatric symptoms were assessed by the Young Schema Questionnaire indexing 19 Early Maladaptive Schemas (EMS), the Young Parenting Inventory and the Symptom Checklist-90-R, respectively, in 30 MF, 17 FM transsexual and 114 control subjects (43 males, 114 females). Results: Subjects with GID demonstrated a level of psychiatric distress comparable to that of controls. They did display elevated scores, however, on multiple EMSs compared to nontranssexual subjects, indicating feelings of isolation, emotional deprivation and an urge to meet others' needs, with MF transsexuals conceptualizing themselves also as more vulnerable and deficient than controls. Parenting experiences of transsexual subjects were characterised by increased maternal dominance, emotional abuse and neglect compared to controls, with males being exposed to a disengaged maternal style and more paternal emotional neglect and criticism. Both MF and FM transsexuals were made felt that in areas of achievement they will inevitably fail. Conclusions: There is no evidence of elevated levels of psychiatric symptoms in GID, but potential predisposing factors, particularly in MF transsexuals, are present; these may originate from the more intense rejection they experience.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)38-45
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Volume42
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Mar 1 2011

Keywords

  • Early maladaptive schemas
  • Female-to-male transsexuals
  • Gender identity disorder
  • Male-to-female transsexuals
  • Perceived parenting behavior
  • Psychopathology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Dysfunctional core beliefs, perceived parenting behavior and psychopathology in gender identity disorder: A comparison of male-to-female, female-to-male transsexual and nontranssexual control subjects'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

  • Cite this