Titanium dioxide photocatalysts were prepared by a newly developed synthesis method that involves rapid heating with short, medium and long exposures of the sol-gel prepared amorphous starting materials (RHSE, RHME and RHLE series) at different temperatures and calcination times. These materials were characterized by various methods, such as XRD, TEM, DRS, IR, nitrogen adsorption and XPS techniques. The detailed study of these catalysts revealed that at low calcination temperatures (e.g. 400°C) the highest activity will be achieved if a long calcination (90-120min) is applied because of the surface purification from the deposited organics. At higher temperatures (e.g. 550°C) shorter calcination times (5-10min) proved to be effective to achieve high UV activity. At this temperature an unidentified oxygen type was detected from the O1s XPS of the samples which seems to be related to the presence of Ti 3+. At 600°C both short (10min) and medium calcination (30-90min) times were found to be beneficial for the phenol degradation under UV irradiation due to the very effective sensitization (10min of calcination) and surface OH-group preservation (60min of calcination).
- Rapid crystallization
- Surface quality
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Environmental Science(all)
- Process Chemistry and Technology