Dry eye diagnosis and management

L. Módis, Eszter Szalai

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Dry eye disease is a very common multifactorial disease of the lacrimal functional unit that results in tear film instability, hyperosmolarity, chronic irritation and inflammation of the ocular surface. Diagnostic tools have been developing rapidly, however, both classic dry eye tests (Schirmer I test, fluorescein staining of the surface epithelium and tear film break-up time) and noninvasive imaging techniques are essential for an exact diagnosis. The management of dry eye syndrome can be either conservative or invasive based on the severity of the disease. The basic aim of treatment is to improve quality of life and reduce subjective complaints and objective ocular surface alterations in dry eye patients. The first line of treatment is tear substitution with artificial tear drops, gels and ointments. In moderate cases preservative-free tear supplementation, topical anti-inflammatory therapy and retinol treatment is recommended. Temporary or permanent punctal plug occlusion, therapeutic contact lenses or moisture chamber use constitute other options. In severe cases the application of topical autologous serum, systemic anti-inflammatory therapy, androgen substitution, secretagogues and surgical intervention can be effective. In the future, noninvasive diagnostic tools and instruments such as screening methods are likely to be developed. In addition, causal therapy of the dry eye will play a greater role, including cyclosporine therapy, secretion stimulation, growth factor-containing artificial tears, as well as secratogogues, immunomodulants and androgenic complexes for severe forms of the disease.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)67-79
Number of pages13
JournalExpert Review of Ophthalmology
Volume6
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2011

Fingerprint

Tears
Substitution reactions
Contact lenses
Therapeutics
Therapeutic Occlusion
Anti-Inflammatory Agents
Dry Eye Syndromes
Screening
Moisture
Gels
Eye Diseases
Imaging techniques
Contact Lenses
Ointments
Fluorescein
Vitamin A
Cyclosporine
Androgens
Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
Epithelium

Keywords

  • artificial tear
  • chronic inflammation
  • dry eye
  • local immunosuppression
  • preservative-free tear ubstitution
  • Sjögren syndrome
  • surgical therapy
  • systemic immunosuppression

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Optometry

Cite this

Dry eye diagnosis and management. / Módis, L.; Szalai, Eszter.

In: Expert Review of Ophthalmology, Vol. 6, No. 1, 02.2011, p. 67-79.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Módis, L. ; Szalai, Eszter. / Dry eye diagnosis and management. In: Expert Review of Ophthalmology. 2011 ; Vol. 6, No. 1. pp. 67-79.
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