Distinguishing logic from association in the solution of an invisible displacement task by children (Homo sapiens) and dogs (Canis familiaris)

Using negation of disjunction

John S. Watson, Gyorgy Gergely, V. Csányi, J. Topál, M. Gácsi, Zsuzsanna Sarkozi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

51 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Prior research on the ability to solve the Piagetian invisible displacement task has focused on prerequisite representational capacity. This study examines the additional prerequisite of deduction. As in other tasks (e.g., conservation and transitivity), it is difficult to distinguish between behavior that reflects logical inference from behavior that reflects associative generalization. Using the role of negation in logic whereby negative feedback about one belief increases the certainty of another (e.g., a disjunctive syllogism), task-naive dogs (Canis familiaris; n = 19) and 4-to 6-year-old children (Homo sapiens; n = 24) were given a task wherein a desirable object was shown to have disappeared from a container after it had passed behind 3 separate screens. As predicted, children (as per logic of negated disjunction) tended to increase their speed of checking the 3rd screen after failing to find the object behind the first 2 screens, whereas dogs (as per associative extinction) tended to significantly decrease their speed of checking the 3rd screen after failing to find the object behind the first 2 screens.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)219-226
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Comparative Psychology
Volume115
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 2001

Fingerprint

Dogs
dogs
Aptitude
extinction
containers
Research
Homo sapiens
speed
dog
container
Psychological Extinction
Generalization (Psychology)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Psychology (miscellaneous)

Cite this

@article{47109b50c6cb451cb5d8c741d646a3c6,
title = "Distinguishing logic from association in the solution of an invisible displacement task by children (Homo sapiens) and dogs (Canis familiaris): Using negation of disjunction",
abstract = "Prior research on the ability to solve the Piagetian invisible displacement task has focused on prerequisite representational capacity. This study examines the additional prerequisite of deduction. As in other tasks (e.g., conservation and transitivity), it is difficult to distinguish between behavior that reflects logical inference from behavior that reflects associative generalization. Using the role of negation in logic whereby negative feedback about one belief increases the certainty of another (e.g., a disjunctive syllogism), task-naive dogs (Canis familiaris; n = 19) and 4-to 6-year-old children (Homo sapiens; n = 24) were given a task wherein a desirable object was shown to have disappeared from a container after it had passed behind 3 separate screens. As predicted, children (as per logic of negated disjunction) tended to increase their speed of checking the 3rd screen after failing to find the object behind the first 2 screens, whereas dogs (as per associative extinction) tended to significantly decrease their speed of checking the 3rd screen after failing to find the object behind the first 2 screens.",
author = "Watson, {John S.} and Gyorgy Gergely and V. Cs{\'a}nyi and J. Top{\'a}l and M. G{\'a}csi and Zsuzsanna Sarkozi",
year = "2001",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1037/0735-7036.115.3.219",
language = "English",
volume = "115",
pages = "219--226",
journal = "Journal of comparative psychology (Washington, D.C. : 1983)",
issn = "0735-7036",
publisher = "American Psychological Association Inc.",
number = "3",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Distinguishing logic from association in the solution of an invisible displacement task by children (Homo sapiens) and dogs (Canis familiaris)

T2 - Using negation of disjunction

AU - Watson, John S.

AU - Gergely, Gyorgy

AU - Csányi, V.

AU - Topál, J.

AU - Gácsi, M.

AU - Sarkozi, Zsuzsanna

PY - 2001/1/1

Y1 - 2001/1/1

N2 - Prior research on the ability to solve the Piagetian invisible displacement task has focused on prerequisite representational capacity. This study examines the additional prerequisite of deduction. As in other tasks (e.g., conservation and transitivity), it is difficult to distinguish between behavior that reflects logical inference from behavior that reflects associative generalization. Using the role of negation in logic whereby negative feedback about one belief increases the certainty of another (e.g., a disjunctive syllogism), task-naive dogs (Canis familiaris; n = 19) and 4-to 6-year-old children (Homo sapiens; n = 24) were given a task wherein a desirable object was shown to have disappeared from a container after it had passed behind 3 separate screens. As predicted, children (as per logic of negated disjunction) tended to increase their speed of checking the 3rd screen after failing to find the object behind the first 2 screens, whereas dogs (as per associative extinction) tended to significantly decrease their speed of checking the 3rd screen after failing to find the object behind the first 2 screens.

AB - Prior research on the ability to solve the Piagetian invisible displacement task has focused on prerequisite representational capacity. This study examines the additional prerequisite of deduction. As in other tasks (e.g., conservation and transitivity), it is difficult to distinguish between behavior that reflects logical inference from behavior that reflects associative generalization. Using the role of negation in logic whereby negative feedback about one belief increases the certainty of another (e.g., a disjunctive syllogism), task-naive dogs (Canis familiaris; n = 19) and 4-to 6-year-old children (Homo sapiens; n = 24) were given a task wherein a desirable object was shown to have disappeared from a container after it had passed behind 3 separate screens. As predicted, children (as per logic of negated disjunction) tended to increase their speed of checking the 3rd screen after failing to find the object behind the first 2 screens, whereas dogs (as per associative extinction) tended to significantly decrease their speed of checking the 3rd screen after failing to find the object behind the first 2 screens.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85047682523&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85047682523&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1037/0735-7036.115.3.219

DO - 10.1037/0735-7036.115.3.219

M3 - Article

VL - 115

SP - 219

EP - 226

JO - Journal of comparative psychology (Washington, D.C. : 1983)

JF - Journal of comparative psychology (Washington, D.C. : 1983)

SN - 0735-7036

IS - 3

ER -