Distal deposition of tephra from the Eyjafjallajökull 2010 summit eruption

J. A. Stevenson, S. Loughlin, C. Rae, T. Thordarson, A. E. Milodowski, J. S. Gilbert, S. Harangi, R. Lukács, B. Hjgaard, U. Árting, S. Pyne-O'Donnell, A. MacLeod, B. Whitney, M. Cassidy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

The 2010 Eyjafjallajökull lasted 39 days and had 4 different phases, of which the first and third (14-18 April and 5-6 May) were most intense. Most of this period was dominated by winds with a northerly component that carried tephra toward Europe, where it was deposited in a number of locations and was sampled by rain gauges or buckets, surface swabs, sticky-tape samples and air filtering. In the UK, tephra was collected from each of the Phases 1-3 with a combined range of latitudes spanning the length of the country. The modal grain size of tephra in the rain gauge samples was 25 m, but the largest grains were 100 m in diameter and highly vesicular. The mass loading was equivalent to 8-218 shards cm-2, which is comparable to tephra layers from much larger past eruptions. Falling tephra was collected on sticky tape in the English Midlands on 19, 20 and 21st April (Phase 2), and was dominated by aggregate clasts (mean diameter 85 m, component grains 4H2O). Air quality monitoring stations did not record fluctuations in hourly PM10 concentrations outside the normal range of variability during the eruption, but there was a small increase in 24-hour running mean concentration from 21-24 April (Phase 2). Deposition of tephra from Phase 2 in the UK indicates that transport of tephra from Iceland is possible even for small eruption plumes given suitable wind conditions. The presence of relatively coarse grains adds uncertainty to concentration estimates from air quality sensors, which are most sensitive to grain sizes

Original languageEnglish
Article numberB00C10
JournalJournal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics
Volume117
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sep 1 2012

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tephra
rain gages
volcanic eruptions
Rain gages
air quality
volcanic eruption
Air quality
Tapes
tapes
grain size
buckets
Iceland
rain gauges
falling
plumes
stations
gauge
Monitoring
sensors
air

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geochemistry and Petrology
  • Geophysics
  • Earth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)
  • Space and Planetary Science

Cite this

Stevenson, J. A., Loughlin, S., Rae, C., Thordarson, T., Milodowski, A. E., Gilbert, J. S., ... Cassidy, M. (2012). Distal deposition of tephra from the Eyjafjallajökull 2010 summit eruption. Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, 117(6), [B00C10]. https://doi.org/10.1029/2011JB008904

Distal deposition of tephra from the Eyjafjallajökull 2010 summit eruption. / Stevenson, J. A.; Loughlin, S.; Rae, C.; Thordarson, T.; Milodowski, A. E.; Gilbert, J. S.; Harangi, S.; Lukács, R.; Hjgaard, B.; Árting, U.; Pyne-O'Donnell, S.; MacLeod, A.; Whitney, B.; Cassidy, M.

In: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 117, No. 6, B00C10, 01.09.2012.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Stevenson, JA, Loughlin, S, Rae, C, Thordarson, T, Milodowski, AE, Gilbert, JS, Harangi, S, Lukács, R, Hjgaard, B, Árting, U, Pyne-O'Donnell, S, MacLeod, A, Whitney, B & Cassidy, M 2012, 'Distal deposition of tephra from the Eyjafjallajökull 2010 summit eruption', Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, vol. 117, no. 6, B00C10. https://doi.org/10.1029/2011JB008904
Stevenson JA, Loughlin S, Rae C, Thordarson T, Milodowski AE, Gilbert JS et al. Distal deposition of tephra from the Eyjafjallajökull 2010 summit eruption. Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics. 2012 Sep 1;117(6). B00C10. https://doi.org/10.1029/2011JB008904
Stevenson, J. A. ; Loughlin, S. ; Rae, C. ; Thordarson, T. ; Milodowski, A. E. ; Gilbert, J. S. ; Harangi, S. ; Lukács, R. ; Hjgaard, B. ; Árting, U. ; Pyne-O'Donnell, S. ; MacLeod, A. ; Whitney, B. ; Cassidy, M. / Distal deposition of tephra from the Eyjafjallajökull 2010 summit eruption. In: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics. 2012 ; Vol. 117, No. 6.
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