Diabetes increases the risk of different kidney diseases. The most important is diabetic nephropathy, however, ischemic kidney disease, chronic pyleonephritis and papilla necrosis may also develop. The prognosis of diabetic nephropathy has improved recently, however, it is still the primary cause of dialysis and transplantation. Cardiovascular diseases predict mostly mortality in diabetic patients, however, cerebrovascular insults and peripheral obstructive arterial diseases necessitating lower limb amputations are also important. Diabetic retinopathy is almost always present with diabetic nephropathy. Diabetic neuropathy may also develop, furthermore vascular complications often com-bine. All these urge complex workup, follow-up and early treatment. If transplantation is indicated, preemptive operation should be preferred, and living donation shows the best outcomes. Different forms of carbohydrate disorder may occur after transplantation: New-onset diabetes or diabetes known before transplantation may progress. Renal transplantation with pancreas transplantation may be indicated in type 1 diabetes with end-stage diabetic nephropathy, most often simultaneously. This may result in normoglycemia and insulin-independence and the progression of other complications may also halt. Transplant associated hyperglycemia occurs in most of the patients early, however, it is often transitory. Despite stabilization of the patient and of the immunosuppressive therapy, about one third of the patients may develop posttransplant diabetes. Insulin secretion disorder is the primary cause, but insulin resistance is also needed. Insulin administration may help, however, other antidiabetics can also be useful. Carbohydrate metabolism should be checked in both cadaveric and living donors. The authors make an attempt to summarize the above conditions with Hungarian relevance as well.
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