Determinants of Vitamin D Deficiency From Sun Exposure: A Global Perspective.

William B. Grant, H. Bhattoa, Pawel Pludowski

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

1 Citation (Scopus)


Vitamin D deficiency, generally defined as 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration <50. nmol/L, affects nearly half the world's population. Solar ultraviolet B (UVB) exposure is the primary source of vitamin D for most people. Many factors affect 25(OH)D concentrations related to solar UVB exposure, including skin pigmentation, solar zenith angle, atmospheric aerosols and clouds, time spent in the sun, amount of skin surface area exposed, use of sunscreen, age, and body mass index. Cultural and lifestyle differences-such as beauty standards, including high regard for fair skin in darker-skinned populations and avoidance of wrinkling; occupation; religion; urban/rural residence; and fear of developing skin cancer or melanoma-also affect some of those factors. Thus, fortification of food with vitamin D and vitamin D supplementation would have to be employed to compensate for unavoidable or inconvenient lack of solar UVB exposure.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationHealth, Disease and Therapeutics
PublisherElsevier Inc.
Number of pages12
ISBN (Electronic)9780128099650
ISBN (Print)9780128099643
Publication statusPublished - Dec 14 2017



  • 25-Hydroxyvitamin D
  • Shadow rule
  • Skin cancer
  • Solar
  • Sunscreen
  • Ultraviolet B
  • Vitamin D

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Grant, W. B., Bhattoa, H., & Pludowski, P. (2017). Determinants of Vitamin D Deficiency From Sun Exposure: A Global Perspective. In Health, Disease and Therapeutics (Vol. 2, pp. 79-90). Elsevier Inc..