A long series of human and animal viruses possess cross-reacting antigens e.g. adenoviruses, pestiviruses, immuno-deficiency viruses and herpesvlruses. In many cases, clinical diagnostics of viral zoonoses require use of the same antigen preparations for the detection of antibodies in different animal species and humans. Staphylococcus A- and Streptococcus G-peroxidase conjugates have been used for the detection of antibodies by biochemists and histologists since many years. This work describes the adaptation of Fc-specific conjugates for the detection of virus-specific human and animal antibodies using commercial ELISA reagents and IF antigen preparations. Recombinant HCV, HEV and HIV enzyme immuno assays were used throughout. The Epstein-Barr virus antigen was prepared according to standard diagnostic immuno-fluorescence procedures. The Fc-fragment binding conjugates (manufactured by Pierce Chemical Company, Rockford, Illinois - Cat. No. 32400 - ImmunoPure Recomb Protein A Peroxidase Conjugated 1 mg or by Sigma-Aldrich Chemichal Co., Cat. No. P-5164) were used for the detection of different species specific IgG molecules. The standardization had to be performed with each commercial reagent individually, using positive and negative collections of human sera. HIV reagents always gave false positive results with human sera using Staphylococcus A protein Conjugates. This was not the case with monkey sera. Sera of C. aethiops were shown to contain antibodies to hepatitis E virus (1 of 25), HIV2 (18 of 57), HIV-1+2 (8 of 57). The evaluation of O. D./"cutoff" values indicated that the presence of HIV 1+2 mixed antibodies were not found in the sera of highest cross-reacting antibody titres. It was suggested, that the "mixed" and "unique" reactivities originate from the cross-reaction with two different simian viruses. The HIV-type specific reactivity was confirmed with Western-blot tests. More than 90% of the monkeys were seropositive with Epstein-Barr virus reagents. The geometric mean titre was 1:160 in 10 animals titrated. Hepatitis E virus antibodies were found in wild swine (9 of 27) and in domestic pigs (7 of 25). All 7 domestic pigs seroconverted in the 5th months of life indicating one single epidemiological event Introducing the virus into the farm. Though both wild swine and domestic pigs were seronegative for hog cholera, a few animals were found to carry cross-reacting antibodies to human hepatitis C virus. Antibodies were detected in cattle cross-reacting with Epstein-Barr virus, but these animals were negative for bovine herpesvirus type 4, and the antibodies were shown to be unrelated to Herpesvirus saimiri antibodies.
|Translated title of the contribution||Detection of cross-reacting virus-specific human and animal antibodies|
|Number of pages||9|
|Journal||Magyar Allatorvosok Lapja|
|Publication status||Published - Dec 1 1999|
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