Detection issues in two-dimensional on-line chromatography

Krisztián Horváth, Jacob N. Fairchild, Georges Guiochon

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29 Citations (Scopus)


The dilution of analytes during their migration through two-dimensional liquid chromatographic systems was investigated. Simplified equations for the calculation of the dilution factors in the first and second dimension columns were derived considering the variance of the injected sample, the flow rates, the split ratio, the volume of the intermediate sample loop and the sampling time of the first-dimension effluent. The net dilution factor is the product of the dilution factors in the two single dimensions. It is between 200 and 300 in typical two-dimensional liquid chromatographic (2D-LC) separations. These values are less pessimistic than those reported previously [1]. It was shown that the fraction of organic modifier or stronger eluent component in the injected sample has a significant effect on the widths and heights of the eluted peaks. Analytes with high retention factors and high molecular weights are less sensitive toward this effect than those having small retention factors. These results suggest that the optimization of the experimental conditions of two dimension separations must be made from the points of view of both the retention factor and the detector response factor. The frequency of sampling of the eluent of the first-dimension separation does not have a significant effect on the detection limit of a 2D system if the split ratio is adjusted in the ratio of the frequency of sample collection.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)7785-7792
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Chromatography A
Issue number45
Publication statusPublished - Nov 6 2009



  • Detection
  • Detection limit
  • Dilution factor
  • On-line two-dimensional chromatography
  • Two-dimensional chromatography

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Biochemistry
  • Organic Chemistry

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