Torque teno midi virus/small anellovirus (TTMDV/SAV) is a member of the family Anelloviridae. It has a single-stranded, circular, negative-sense DNA genome. Its pathogenic role in human disease remains to be confirmed. In this study, viral shedding, molecular epidemiology and genetic diversity of TTMDV/SAV were studied in human body fluids. Nasopharyngeal aspirates collected from children with acute respiratory disease were tested by PCR/nested PCR for TTMDV/SAV in two seasons (2005/2006, 2006/2007). Two years later, additional urine, stool, and serum samples and nasopharyngeal aspirates were collected from eight symptomless children for follow-up investigation. Forty-three (46. 7%) of the 92 nasopharyngeal aspirates collected contained TTMDV/SAV. High genetic diversity was observed; however, identical sequences were also detected in two patients. The mean age of the infected children was 3 years (1 months-8 years), and 58% of them were female. Co-infection with RSV was detected in 23% of the samples. In a follow-up study, nasopharyngeal aspirates and serum of six (75%), stool samples of four (50%) and urine samples of two (25%) of the eight children were anellovirus-positive. None of the anellovirus sequences were identical in the two collection periods, but identical sequences were detected in different body fluids collected at the same time from the same child. TTMDV/SAVs shedding was detected in four human body fluids. As a consequence, it is possible that generalized infection and fecal/uro-oral transmission of TTMDV/SAV occur. TTMDV/SAVs are frequently present in nasopharyngeal aspirates, although the variants may only be transient agents. Further research is needed to investigate the pathogenesis and pathogenic role of TTMDV/SAV.
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