Objective:To provide an overview of the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence Cross-Sectional Study (HELENA-CSS) design, with particular attention to its quality control procedures. Other important methodological aspects are described in detail throughout this supplement.Design:Description of the HELENA-CSS sampling and recruitment approaches, standardization and harmonization processes, data collection and analysis strategies and quality control activities.Results:The HELENA-CSS is a multi-centre collaborative study conducted in European adolescents located in urban settings. The data management systems, quality assurance monitoring activities, standardized manuals of operating procedures and training and study management are addressed in this paper. Various quality controls to ensure collection of valid and reliable data will be discussed in this supplement, as well as quantitative estimates of measurement error.Conclusion:The great advantage of the HELENA-CSS is the strict standardization of the fieldwork and the blood analyses, which precludes to a great extent the kind of immeasurable confounding bias that often interferes when comparing results from isolated studies.
- Cross-sectional study
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Medicine (miscellaneous)
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Nutrition and Dietetics