Degradation of thiamethoxam and metoprolol by UV, O 3 and UV/O 3 hybrid processes: Kinetics, degradation intermediates and toxicity

D. Šojić, V. Despotović, D. Orčić, E. Szabó, E. Arany, S. Armaković, E. Illés, K. Gajda-Schrantz, A. Dombi, T. Alapi, E. Sajben-Nagy, A. Palágyi, Cs Vágvölgyi, L. Manczinger, L. Bjelica, B. Abramović

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A comprehensive study of the degradation of thiamethoxam (THIA) and metoprolol (MET) was conducted by using UV-induced photolysis (λ=254nm), ozonation, and a combination of these methods. In order to investigate how molecular structure of the substrate influences the rate of its degradation, we compared these three processes for the insecticide THIA and the drug MET (a β 1-blocker). Of the three treatments applied, the UV photolysis and the combination of UV/O 3 were found to be most effective in the degradation of THIA, while the UV/O 3 process appeared to be the most efficient in terms of MET decay. The degradation kinetics was monitored by LC-DAD, and spectrophotometry, while the mineralization of the substrates was studied by TOC analysis. Reaction intermediates were studied in detail and a number of them were identified using LC-MS (ESI+/ESI-). Both parent compounds showed slight toxic effects towards algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and bacteria Vibrio fischeri. However, the toxicity of the solutions containing also the degradation intermediates appeared to be much higher for all the test organisms. The inhibition/mortality rates were reduced most efficiently by the UV/O 3 procedure. Ames test and Comet assay were used to follow the genotoxicity during the degradation of the studied compounds. Genotoxic intermediates were frequently detected in the case of MET in the UV treatment alone or in the presence of ozone. Treatments of THIA samples resulted less frequently in genotoxic intermediates. To our best knowledge, this work is the first genotoxicological investigation dealing with the photolytic degradation process of the studied compounds.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)314-327
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Hydrology
Publication statusPublished - Nov 23 2012


  • Advanced oxidation processes
  • Ecotoxicity
  • Kinetics
  • Metoprolol
  • Mutagenicity
  • Thiamethoxam

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Water Science and Technology

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    Šojić, D., Despotović, V., Orčić, D., Szabó, E., Arany, E., Armaković, S., Illés, E., Gajda-Schrantz, K., Dombi, A., Alapi, T., Sajben-Nagy, E., Palágyi, A., Vágvölgyi, C., Manczinger, L., Bjelica, L., & Abramović, B. (2012). Degradation of thiamethoxam and metoprolol by UV, O 3 and UV/O 3 hybrid processes: Kinetics, degradation intermediates and toxicity. Journal of Hydrology, 472-473, 314-327.