Day-night, seismic, and solar flare effect on the propagation of 24 kHz sub-ionospheric VLF transmitter signals

Manoj Kumar, Vikram Singh, Birbal Singh, P. Steinbach, J. Lichtenberger, D. Hamar

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3 Citations (Scopus)


The preliminary results of a collaborative study on the amplitude variation of 24 kHz sub-ionospheric NAA VLF transmitter signals transmitted from Cutler, Maine (Lat. 44.6°N, Long. 67.2°W) and monitored simultaneously at Budapest (Lat. 47.5°N, Long. 19.17°E), Hungary and Agra (Lat. 27.2°N, Long. 78°E), India are presented. The time segments of the propagation paths are so chosen that they lie in the post-midnight hours over Budapest and sunrise hours over Agra. The results show that the amplitude at Budapest decreases after midnight hours by about 3 dB whereas the same at Agra increases by 5 dB during sunrise normally. The anomalous enhancements and reductions in the amplitude variation during the three month period of July-September 2002 along Cutler-Agra great circle path (GCP) are examined in the light of seismic, solar flares, and magnetic storm effects. It is found that the occasional amplitude reductions are caused by earthquakes (M > 5) which occurred along the GCP, and the enhancements are caused by solar flares. The magnetic storms do not seem to influence the data except in the case when associated with large solar flares.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)416-421
Number of pages6
JournalPhysics and Chemistry of the Earth
Issue number4-9
Publication statusPublished - Jun 14 2006



  • Amplitude
  • Earthquake
  • Solar flare
  • VLF transmitter signal

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geophysics
  • Geochemistry and Petrology

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