Adatok a macska coronavirusainak molekuláris biológiájához

Translated title of the contribution: Data regarding the molecular biology of feline coronaviruses

Kiss István, S. Kecskeméti, J. Tanyi, Bernat S. Klingeborn, Belák Sándor

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

The authors give a short review on contemporary knowledge about the molecular biology of feline coronaviruses. Particular attention is paid to the connection between feline enteric coronaviruses (FECV) and feline infectious peritonitis viruses (FIPV). FIP is a leading infectious cause of death among young cats, and occurs worldwide. The disease has a progressive immune-mediated pathogenesis. Diagnosis and control of the disease is difficult since serological investigations are not informative for this purpose, and neither treatment nor reliable vaccines are available at present. Based on in vitro neutralisation, the existence of two serotypes of feline coronaviruses has been shown. They differ mainly in their field prevalence and their in vitro growth characteristics. Feline coronaviruses were divided into two biotypes on the grounds of pathogenicity, i.e. FECV and FIP viruses. FECV may produce mild enteritis, but most infections remain subclinical. However, FECV presents a considerable health risk to cats because it is the precursor of FIPV. FECV can establish persistent infection in cats during natural infection. Asymptomatic FECV-infected carrier cats spread the infection to susceptible animals via the fecal-oral route. FIP viruses arise as a result of deletions and presumably mutations in the FECV genome during the intestinal replicative phase of infection. Deletions occur most specifically in the ORF3c region of the FECV genome. The intact ORF3c presumably suppresses the function of the virulence factor ORF7b in FECVs. However, in their changed FIPV counterparts, where the ORF3c is deleted or truncated, this suppression does not function, therefore the ORF7b may readily contribute to the invasion of the organism and to the development of FIP. In experimentally infected cats, the authors found that the persisting FECV forms in the large intestine a quasi-species population the composition of which varies with tune. The changes affect the structural-protein coding regions of the viruses. Having entered the different organs, this variability is markedly reduced, which is probably due to strong selection. Furthermore, since some of the detected viruses were partly or entirely lacking ORF7b, the existence of other virulence factors cannot be excluded. Thus, the incidence of FIP in a cat population is not the result of the circulation of certain FIP viruses, but rather it is in strict correlation with the mutation rate of FECV to FIPV. Therefore, to learn the probability of occurrence of FIP viruses and the disease itself, it is recommended to monitor a population for the prevalence of the asymptomatic FECV carriers. We suggest using RT-PCR targeting one of the most conservative genomic regions for this purpose. However, the regions ORF3c and ORF7b that are presumably responsible for the evolution of FIP viruses should be also scrutinised in pathogenicity studies. Similarly, the molecular background of natural resistance of some cat breeding-lines against feline coronaviruses would be also well worth investigating.

Original languageHungarian
Pages (from-to)292-297
Number of pages6
JournalMagyar Allatorvosok Lapja
Volume121
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 1999

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Feline Coronavirus
Feline coronavirus
molecular biology
Molecular Biology
Cats
cats
viruses
Viruses
Virulence Factors
Infection
infection
Virulence
virulence
pathogenicity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • veterinary(all)

Cite this

Adatok a macska coronavirusainak molekuláris biológiájához. / István, Kiss; Kecskeméti, S.; Tanyi, J.; Klingeborn, Bernat S.; Sándor, Belák.

In: Magyar Allatorvosok Lapja, Vol. 121, No. 5, 1999, p. 292-297.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

István, K, Kecskeméti, S, Tanyi, J, Klingeborn, BS & Sándor, B 1999, 'Adatok a macska coronavirusainak molekuláris biológiájához', Magyar Allatorvosok Lapja, vol. 121, no. 5, pp. 292-297.
István, Kiss ; Kecskeméti, S. ; Tanyi, J. ; Klingeborn, Bernat S. ; Sándor, Belák. / Adatok a macska coronavirusainak molekuláris biológiájához. In: Magyar Allatorvosok Lapja. 1999 ; Vol. 121, No. 5. pp. 292-297.
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