Cytolethal distending toxin type I and type IV genes are framed with lambdoid prophage genes in extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli

István Tóth, Jean Philippe Nougayrède, Ulrich Dobrindt, Terence Neil Ledger, Michèle Boury, Stefano Morabito, Tamaki Fujiwara, Motoyuki Sugai, Jörg Hacker, Eric Oswald

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

28 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Five types of cytolethal distending toxin (CDT-I to CDT-V) have been identified in Escherichia coli. In the present study we cloned and sequenced the cdt-IV operon and flanking region from a porcine extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) strain belonging to serogroup O75. We confirmed that similar to other CDTs, CDT-IV induced phosphorylation of host histone H2AX, a sensitive marker of DNA double-strand breaks, and blocked the HeLa cell cycle at the G2-M transition. The cdt-IV genes were framed by lambdoid prophage genes. We cloned and sequenced the cdt-I operon and flanking regions from a human ExPEC O18:K1:H7 strain and observed that cdt-I genes were also flanked by lambdoid prophage genes. PCR studies indicated that a gene coding for a putative protease was always associated with the cdtC-IV gene but was not associated with cdtC genes in strains producing CDT-I, CDT-III, and CDT-V. Our results suggest that the cdt-I and cdt-IV genes might have been acquired from a common ancestor by phage transduction and evolved in their bacterial hosts. The lysogenic bacteriophages have the potential to carry nonessential "cargo" genes or "morons" and therefore play a crucial role in the generation of genetic diversity within ExPEC.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)492-500
Number of pages9
JournalInfection and Immunity
Volume77
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 2009

    Fingerprint

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Parasitology
  • Microbiology
  • Immunology
  • Infectious Diseases

Cite this

Tóth, I., Nougayrède, J. P., Dobrindt, U., Ledger, T. N., Boury, M., Morabito, S., Fujiwara, T., Sugai, M., Hacker, J., & Oswald, E. (2009). Cytolethal distending toxin type I and type IV genes are framed with lambdoid prophage genes in extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli. Infection and Immunity, 77(1), 492-500. https://doi.org/10.1128/IAI.00962-08