Recent cytogenetical findings and novel molecular biology results of acute myeloid leukaemia have shed new lights of our understanding in the diagnosis and treatment of the disease. Acute myeloid leukaemia is not only represented by the wide variety of morphological and immunophenotypic diversity but also demonstrates cytogenetical and molecular biological heterogeneity of its own. It has an unfavorable prognosis, especially in the elderly. Overall survival of younger patients (<50-60 years) has increased in the past years due to high dose chemotherapy (daunorubicine, cytarabine). But in case of unfavorable prognostic factors (not only cytogenetical but also molecular biological characters of the disease), allogeneic stem cell transplantation is needed for successful overall outcome. Better understanding the biology of acute myeloid leukaemia could establish novel targeted therapies and help us eventually to cure the disease.
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