Introduction: Many species of Cryptosporidium, and two assemlages of Giardia duodenalis cause typically acute diaorrhoea in human. The oocysts and cysts of these parasites excreted in faeces are capable of infecting other hosts and those are environmentally stable. Aim: The aims of the study were to evaluate the prevalence and genotypes of Cryptosporidium and Giardia species from different water sources as well as to monitor and characterize the (oo)cyst contamination sources in watersheds. In addition, an epidemiological study was performed in three selected settlements. Method: Wide range of modern epidemiological and molecular detection methods have been applied. Results: (Oo)cysts densities were associated with water receiving effluents of sewage treatment plants or originating from a forest environment. It was confirmed, that cattle can be a source of Cryptosporidium oocysts at watersheds and aquatic birds can play a role in the environmental dissemination of these protozoa. The epidemiological study demonstrated a specific epidemiological situation, giving essential evidence about giardiasis in asymptomatic carriers. The applied novel detection technology was found to be cost effective and simple procedure for screening catchments to identify those that require further treatment and more detailed microscopic counts. Conclusions: The presented results contribute to a better understanding the epidemiology and relevance of waterborne parasites, their surveillance and performance of future control measures to prevent waterborne infections in Hungary. Orv. Hetil., 154(46), 1836-1842.
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