Correlations between metabolic and hormonal cancer risk factors and aging

Age-and gender-related risk for oral cancer

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Abstract

Ageing and cancer development seem to be completely controversial processes affecting the proliferative homeostasis apparently quite inversely. However, the results of experimental, clinical and epidemiological studies support that ageing and carcinogenesis are in intimate correlation.Recently, there are thorough changes in oral cancer (OC) epidemiology all over the world. In the past century OC was regarded as a typically tobacco and alcohol associated tumor of middle aged and elderly male patients. The extremely high male to female OC incidence ratio has been shown a conspicuously decreasing trend in the last decades. Moreover, a decreasing ratio of smokers among OC cases could also be observed and among non-smoker, non-drinker OC cases an increased prevalence of elderly female patients have been observed without rational explanation. Age-dependent gender-related differences in oral cancer prevalence might plausibly derive from the coarse hormonal changes between the reproductive and postmenopausal periods of women. Age distribution of male OC cases within the young, middle-aged and elderly groups exhibits that smoking anticipates cancer initiation in men. As male OC cases are predominantly smokers the trends of age related changes in all male OC and smoker male OC groups are similar. Smoker women with OC exhibit similar age-related distribution like smoker men with OC, thus smoking seems to equalize the gender differences by reduced female sexual steroid levels. By contrast, among non-smoker female OC cases during the natural ageing process after an average onset of menopause tumors may be initiated in the middle-aged period. Conspicuous accumulation of non-smoker elderly female cases among patients with clinically diagnosable OC may be associated with the physiologic ageing-associated hormonal and metabolic alterations. Elevated fasting glucose does not influence markedly either the oral cancer risk or the age distribution of OC in pooled smoker and non-smoker male population; however, EFG is a high risk factor for OC among predominantly postmenopausal women. As insulin resistance and type-2 diabetes exhibit a worldwide increasing prevalence, these gender-related differences in OC risk caused by EFG may explain the decreasing male to female ratio of oral malignancies. As ageing is associated with specific hormonal alterations contributing to the development of malignancies, a regular laboratory control of middle-aged and elderly people may be en effective tool in primary cancer prevention.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationCancer in the Elderly
PublisherNova Science Publishers, Inc.
Pages59-82
Number of pages24
ISBN (Print)9781614706380
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2012

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Mouth Neoplasms
Aging of materials
Neoplasms
Tumors
Epidemiology
Tobacco
Medical problems
Age Distribution
Steroids
Alcohols
Insulin
Glucose
Smoking
Postmenopause
Primary Prevention
Menopause

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Correlations between metabolic and hormonal cancer risk factors and aging : Age-and gender-related risk for oral cancer. / Suba, Z.

Cancer in the Elderly. Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2012. p. 59-82.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

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