Conditional probability of icing in correlation with local weather elements, as well as with different macrocirculation types are investigated on the basis of 23 years of daily observations for two stations situated in the Pannonian Plain (Debrecen) and in mountainous region (Kékestetö, 1000 m above sea-level). Empirical histograms are calculated and a theoretical model of the distribution is elaborated. Ice is generally twice as frequent at night as during the day. Icing is 5-6 times as frequent on the top of the hill as on the plain, especially considering larger water-contents. Macrosynoptic conditions favourable for icing are essentially different in the two circumstances. At the higher altitude icing is more frequent in cyclonic situations. Considerable load is often accompanied with southwesterly, southerly currents. On the plain station however the anticyclonic situations are somewhat more frequently accompanied with ice formation. Wind speed is practically indifferent at the top of the hill, but on the plain ice formation prefers low wind speeds. These differences are in coincidence with the a priori information of the different nature of ice load. Namely, at the top of hill in-cloud icing is the predominant form, while on the plain fine rime and frozen precipitation represent the overwhelming majority of ice load events. No clear differences in probabilities of icing in any of the above relations appear, however, between the two perpendicular directions of measuring devices. From among the possible applications of the results, a local scenario on ice load changes assuming a 0.5 K global warming is presented.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Atmospheric Science