Cooling as the key parameter in formation of kaolinite-ammonium acetate and halloysite-ammonium acetate complexes using homogenization method

András Kovács, Éva Makó

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Citation (Scopus)


Although the one-step homogenization method has proved to be the simplest and cost-efficient way to intercalate ammonium acetate into kaolinite, the effectiveness of this method is not high enough for potential industrial applications in the area of nanocomposites. To enhance its efficiency we performed systematic experiments to analyze the influence of the intercalation parameters (kaolin mineral content, ammonium acetate to water mass ratio, type of sample holder, temperature, crystallinity and type of kaolin minerals). Instead of keeping the samples at room temperature or slightly above (60–80 °C), which is generally preferred in intercalation methods, cooling below 0 °C was proved to be the key parameter for direct intercalation of ammonium acetate by the homogenization method. Even after 8 weeks of aging at room temperature with optimal additional intercalation parameters, not more than 57% degree of intercalation was achieved, while only 1 week of cooling at −10 °C resulted in about 80% degree of intercalation (using the same additional parameters). The most applicable intercalation procedure was obtained by using 2.1:1. AAc to water mass ratio with 48 wt% kaolin mineral content and keeping the samples at −24 °C (where the influence of kaolin mineral type can become negligible) for 1 week in closed sample holder.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)70-78
Number of pages9
JournalColloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects
Publication statusPublished - Nov 5 2016



  • Ammonium acetate
  • Cooling
  • Halloysite
  • Homogenization
  • Intercalation
  • Kaolinite

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Colloid and Surface Chemistry

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