Contraceptive efficacy of testosterone-induced azoospermia and oligozoospermia in normal men

P. D. Griffin, A. Aribarg, Z. Gui-yuan, C. Jian, L. Guo-zhu, R. A. Anderson, R. S. Swerdloff, F. C W Wu, H. W G Baker, W. Xing-hai, J. C. Soufir, C. A. Paulsen, S. C. Ng, C. Gottlieb, D. J. Handelsman, A. J. Conway, B. Resch, J. Szöllősi, T. M M Farley

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

345 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objective: To determine contraceptive efficacy of hormonally induced sperm suppression to severe oligozoospermia or azoospermia. Design: Prospective, noncomparative contraceptive efficacy study. Setting: Multicenter study in 15 centers in nine countries. Participants: Three hundred ninety-nine normal, healthy, fertile men requesting a male contraceptive method. Intervention: Weekly IM injection of 200 mg T enanthate. Main Outcome Measure: Incidence of pregnancies in efficacy when couples relied on T injections alone for contraception. Results: Four pregnancies occurred during 49.5 person-years involving men with oligozoospermia (0.1 to 3 x 106/mL) and none during 230.4 person-years in azoospermic men: pregnancy rates 8.1 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.2 to 20.7) and 0.0 (95% CI, 0.0 to 1.6) per 100 person-years, respectively, or 1.4 (95% CI, 0.4 to 3.7) per 100 person-years for oligozoospermia and azoospermia (0 to 3 x 106/mL) combined. Pregnancy rates were related to sperm concentration. Inadequate suppression of spermatogenesis occurred in eight men and escape from suppression occurred in four. Discontinuations were due to personal reasons (50 men, cumulative annual life-table rate 12.2% [95% CI, 9.1% to 16.1%]) and dislike of the injection schedule (21 men, 5.1% [95% CI, 3.2% to 7.9%]). Thirty-five men discontinued for medical reasons (9.4% 195% CI, 6.7% to 13.2%]), with no serious treatment-related side effects. After stopping injections, sperm output recovered; additionally, fertility was demonstrated in 33 couples. Conclusion: Suppression of spermatogenesis to azoospermia or severe oligozoospermia (≤3 x 106/mL) induced by weekly T enanthate injections results in sustained, reversible contraception with good efficacy and minimal short-term side effects. New hormonal regimens with more convenient delivery and improved spermatogenic suppression would provide practical male contraception.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)821-829
Number of pages9
JournalFertility and Sterility
Volume65
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1996

Fingerprint

Oligospermia
Azoospermia
Contraceptive Agents
Testosterone
Confidence Intervals
Contraception
Injections
Heptanoates
Spermatozoa
Spermatogenesis
Pregnancy Rate
Male Contraceptive Agents
Pregnancy
Life Tables
Multicenter Studies
Fertility
Appointments and Schedules
Outcome Assessment (Health Care)
Incidence

Keywords

  • azoospermia
  • contraception
  • Multicenter study
  • oligozoospermia
  • spermatogenic- suppression
  • testosterone enanthate

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Obstetrics and Gynaecology

Cite this

Griffin, P. D., Aribarg, A., Gui-yuan, Z., Jian, C., Guo-zhu, L., Anderson, R. A., ... Farley, T. M. M. (1996). Contraceptive efficacy of testosterone-induced azoospermia and oligozoospermia in normal men. Fertility and Sterility, 65(4), 821-829.

Contraceptive efficacy of testosterone-induced azoospermia and oligozoospermia in normal men. / Griffin, P. D.; Aribarg, A.; Gui-yuan, Z.; Jian, C.; Guo-zhu, L.; Anderson, R. A.; Swerdloff, R. S.; Wu, F. C W; Baker, H. W G; Xing-hai, W.; Soufir, J. C.; Paulsen, C. A.; Ng, S. C.; Gottlieb, C.; Handelsman, D. J.; Conway, A. J.; Resch, B.; Szöllősi, J.; Farley, T. M M.

In: Fertility and Sterility, Vol. 65, No. 4, 1996, p. 821-829.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Griffin, PD, Aribarg, A, Gui-yuan, Z, Jian, C, Guo-zhu, L, Anderson, RA, Swerdloff, RS, Wu, FCW, Baker, HWG, Xing-hai, W, Soufir, JC, Paulsen, CA, Ng, SC, Gottlieb, C, Handelsman, DJ, Conway, AJ, Resch, B, Szöllősi, J & Farley, TMM 1996, 'Contraceptive efficacy of testosterone-induced azoospermia and oligozoospermia in normal men', Fertility and Sterility, vol. 65, no. 4, pp. 821-829.
Griffin PD, Aribarg A, Gui-yuan Z, Jian C, Guo-zhu L, Anderson RA et al. Contraceptive efficacy of testosterone-induced azoospermia and oligozoospermia in normal men. Fertility and Sterility. 1996;65(4):821-829.
Griffin, P. D. ; Aribarg, A. ; Gui-yuan, Z. ; Jian, C. ; Guo-zhu, L. ; Anderson, R. A. ; Swerdloff, R. S. ; Wu, F. C W ; Baker, H. W G ; Xing-hai, W. ; Soufir, J. C. ; Paulsen, C. A. ; Ng, S. C. ; Gottlieb, C. ; Handelsman, D. J. ; Conway, A. J. ; Resch, B. ; Szöllősi, J. ; Farley, T. M M. / Contraceptive efficacy of testosterone-induced azoospermia and oligozoospermia in normal men. In: Fertility and Sterility. 1996 ; Vol. 65, No. 4. pp. 821-829.
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abstract = "Objective: To determine contraceptive efficacy of hormonally induced sperm suppression to severe oligozoospermia or azoospermia. Design: Prospective, noncomparative contraceptive efficacy study. Setting: Multicenter study in 15 centers in nine countries. Participants: Three hundred ninety-nine normal, healthy, fertile men requesting a male contraceptive method. Intervention: Weekly IM injection of 200 mg T enanthate. Main Outcome Measure: Incidence of pregnancies in efficacy when couples relied on T injections alone for contraception. Results: Four pregnancies occurred during 49.5 person-years involving men with oligozoospermia (0.1 to 3 x 106/mL) and none during 230.4 person-years in azoospermic men: pregnancy rates 8.1 (95{\%} confidence interval [CI] 2.2 to 20.7) and 0.0 (95{\%} CI, 0.0 to 1.6) per 100 person-years, respectively, or 1.4 (95{\%} CI, 0.4 to 3.7) per 100 person-years for oligozoospermia and azoospermia (0 to 3 x 106/mL) combined. Pregnancy rates were related to sperm concentration. Inadequate suppression of spermatogenesis occurred in eight men and escape from suppression occurred in four. Discontinuations were due to personal reasons (50 men, cumulative annual life-table rate 12.2{\%} [95{\%} CI, 9.1{\%} to 16.1{\%}]) and dislike of the injection schedule (21 men, 5.1{\%} [95{\%} CI, 3.2{\%} to 7.9{\%}]). Thirty-five men discontinued for medical reasons (9.4{\%} 195{\%} CI, 6.7{\%} to 13.2{\%}]), with no serious treatment-related side effects. After stopping injections, sperm output recovered; additionally, fertility was demonstrated in 33 couples. Conclusion: Suppression of spermatogenesis to azoospermia or severe oligozoospermia (≤3 x 106/mL) induced by weekly T enanthate injections results in sustained, reversible contraception with good efficacy and minimal short-term side effects. New hormonal regimens with more convenient delivery and improved spermatogenic suppression would provide practical male contraception.",
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T1 - Contraceptive efficacy of testosterone-induced azoospermia and oligozoospermia in normal men

AU - Griffin, P. D.

AU - Aribarg, A.

AU - Gui-yuan, Z.

AU - Jian, C.

AU - Guo-zhu, L.

AU - Anderson, R. A.

AU - Swerdloff, R. S.

AU - Wu, F. C W

AU - Baker, H. W G

AU - Xing-hai, W.

AU - Soufir, J. C.

AU - Paulsen, C. A.

AU - Ng, S. C.

AU - Gottlieb, C.

AU - Handelsman, D. J.

AU - Conway, A. J.

AU - Resch, B.

AU - Szöllősi, J.

AU - Farley, T. M M

PY - 1996

Y1 - 1996

N2 - Objective: To determine contraceptive efficacy of hormonally induced sperm suppression to severe oligozoospermia or azoospermia. Design: Prospective, noncomparative contraceptive efficacy study. Setting: Multicenter study in 15 centers in nine countries. Participants: Three hundred ninety-nine normal, healthy, fertile men requesting a male contraceptive method. Intervention: Weekly IM injection of 200 mg T enanthate. Main Outcome Measure: Incidence of pregnancies in efficacy when couples relied on T injections alone for contraception. Results: Four pregnancies occurred during 49.5 person-years involving men with oligozoospermia (0.1 to 3 x 106/mL) and none during 230.4 person-years in azoospermic men: pregnancy rates 8.1 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.2 to 20.7) and 0.0 (95% CI, 0.0 to 1.6) per 100 person-years, respectively, or 1.4 (95% CI, 0.4 to 3.7) per 100 person-years for oligozoospermia and azoospermia (0 to 3 x 106/mL) combined. Pregnancy rates were related to sperm concentration. Inadequate suppression of spermatogenesis occurred in eight men and escape from suppression occurred in four. Discontinuations were due to personal reasons (50 men, cumulative annual life-table rate 12.2% [95% CI, 9.1% to 16.1%]) and dislike of the injection schedule (21 men, 5.1% [95% CI, 3.2% to 7.9%]). Thirty-five men discontinued for medical reasons (9.4% 195% CI, 6.7% to 13.2%]), with no serious treatment-related side effects. After stopping injections, sperm output recovered; additionally, fertility was demonstrated in 33 couples. Conclusion: Suppression of spermatogenesis to azoospermia or severe oligozoospermia (≤3 x 106/mL) induced by weekly T enanthate injections results in sustained, reversible contraception with good efficacy and minimal short-term side effects. New hormonal regimens with more convenient delivery and improved spermatogenic suppression would provide practical male contraception.

AB - Objective: To determine contraceptive efficacy of hormonally induced sperm suppression to severe oligozoospermia or azoospermia. Design: Prospective, noncomparative contraceptive efficacy study. Setting: Multicenter study in 15 centers in nine countries. Participants: Three hundred ninety-nine normal, healthy, fertile men requesting a male contraceptive method. Intervention: Weekly IM injection of 200 mg T enanthate. Main Outcome Measure: Incidence of pregnancies in efficacy when couples relied on T injections alone for contraception. Results: Four pregnancies occurred during 49.5 person-years involving men with oligozoospermia (0.1 to 3 x 106/mL) and none during 230.4 person-years in azoospermic men: pregnancy rates 8.1 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.2 to 20.7) and 0.0 (95% CI, 0.0 to 1.6) per 100 person-years, respectively, or 1.4 (95% CI, 0.4 to 3.7) per 100 person-years for oligozoospermia and azoospermia (0 to 3 x 106/mL) combined. Pregnancy rates were related to sperm concentration. Inadequate suppression of spermatogenesis occurred in eight men and escape from suppression occurred in four. Discontinuations were due to personal reasons (50 men, cumulative annual life-table rate 12.2% [95% CI, 9.1% to 16.1%]) and dislike of the injection schedule (21 men, 5.1% [95% CI, 3.2% to 7.9%]). Thirty-five men discontinued for medical reasons (9.4% 195% CI, 6.7% to 13.2%]), with no serious treatment-related side effects. After stopping injections, sperm output recovered; additionally, fertility was demonstrated in 33 couples. Conclusion: Suppression of spermatogenesis to azoospermia or severe oligozoospermia (≤3 x 106/mL) induced by weekly T enanthate injections results in sustained, reversible contraception with good efficacy and minimal short-term side effects. New hormonal regimens with more convenient delivery and improved spermatogenic suppression would provide practical male contraception.

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KW - contraception

KW - Multicenter study

KW - oligozoospermia

KW - spermatogenic- suppression

KW - testosterone enanthate

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