Presence and degree of ketonuria is a simple, practical parameter for the evaluation of post partum (pp) negative energy balance (NEB) in dairy cows. A field trial was carried out on two large-scale dairy farms in Hungary to assess the effect of treated and non-treated ketonuria on the course and clinical cure of puerperal metritis (PM), as well as on the reproduction performance afterwards. Cows with PM up to 10 days pp, calved at term (>270 days of gestation) without complication, were included in the trial (n=131). PM was characterized (i) by large amount of foul smelling, reddish-brown, watery (e.g. putrid) exsudate with some necrotic debris in the uterus and thin uterine wall or (ii) by limited amount of malodorous, purulent uterus exsudate and thick (oedematous) uterine wall with or without systemic signs of disease. The first intrauterine (IU) antimicrobial treatment for PM was applied at inclusion, while antiketogenic treatment was given for a randomly selected proportion of the animals at the same time. Urine acetic-acetate (AcAc) level of each cows was determined by a semi-quantitative quick stick test (level of ≥1.5 mmol/I was considered to be positive reaction i.e. ketonuria), and part of the cows with ketonuria received further antiketogenic treatment until urine AcAc level was below the cut-off limit on two consecutive days. Consequently, for data evaluation, cows were allocated to four groups: with ketonuria, no treatment (n=37); with ketonuria, treated (n=38); without ketonuria, no treatment (n=27); without ketonuria, treated (n=29). Urine AcAc level was above the cut-off for 1-4 weeks (mean±SD: 17.3±1.6 days) in the non-treated cows treated with ketonuria, while it took 2-8 days (4.5±0.4 days) in the cows treated with ketonuria (significant difference: two sample t-test p<0.001). Anatomic involution of the uterus became complete approximately 1 week later (38±1 days) in the group with non-treated ketonuria, as compared to the groups with treated ketonuria or without ketonuria (31±1 days, 29±1 days, 31±1 days respectively; LSD(P=005)=3.1). Moreover, cows within this group required more repeated IU antimicrobial treatment to get completely cured than those within the other three groups (9.6±0.7 vs 4.7±0.6, 3.8±0.4, 4.1±0.5; LSD (P=0.05)=1.64). Calving to re-conception period took longer in this group (open days: 113±9 days vs 94±6 days, 90±7 days, 89±8 days; non significant difference by ANOVA: p=0.12), and the overall pregnancy rate was significantly lower (38% vs 61, 59,62 %; chi2 test pairwise comparisons P1-2=0.05, p1-3=0.09, p1-4=0.05). Therefore, it can be concluded, that in the cows with PM having substantial NEB characterized by ketonuria and received no antiketogenic treatment, the course of uterine involution was slower, resulting in more prolonged recovery period of PM. These cows required more IU antimicrobial treatment, their pregnancy rate was lower, and their calving to re-conception period was longer, as compared to the PM-affected cows without ketonuria, or to those having ketonuria, but received proper antiketogenic treatment. However, no difference was observed between the latter groups. It means, that if NEB is compensated by using an antiketogenic treatment, the efficacy of IU treatment of PM is increased, and consequently the economic losses caused by the poorer reproduction performance of the cows with PM can be reduced.
|Number of pages||8|
|Journal||Magyar Allatorvosok Lapja|
|Publication status||Published - Dec 1 2007|
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