The total prevalence of conjoined twins (birth + prenatally diagnosed) was 1:68,000 in the study of 1970-1986. Symmetrical cases (the so-called siamese twins) have an obvious predominance (92.3%). Associated major malformations occurred in 80% of conjoined twins and more than 1/5 were discordant. The surviving time of liveborn conjoined twin sets was not more than two days except in two surgically successfully separated pairs. The family study did not indicate a higher recurrence risk. The case group was compared to two control groups and it appeared that the periconceptional use of oral contraception and ovulation induction were mentioned more frequently in pregnancies resulting in conjoined twins.
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