Complex X chromosome rearrangement associated with multiorgan autoimmunity

Irén Haltrich, Henriett Pikó, Horolma Pamjav, Anikó Somogyi, Antónia Völgyi, Dezso David, Artúr Beke, Zoltán Garamvölgyi, Eszter Kiss, Veronika Karcagi, György Fekete

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Turner syndrome, a congenital condition that affects 1/2,500 births, results from absence or structural alteration of the second sex chromosome. Turner syndrome is usually associated with short stature, gonadal dysgenesis and variable dysmorphic features. The classical 45,X karyotype accounts approximately for half of all patients, the remainder exhibit mosaicism or structural abnormalities of the X chromosome. However, complex intra-X chromosomal rearrangements involving more than three breakpoints are extremely rare. Results: We present a unique case of a novel complex X chromosome rearrangement in a young female patient presenting successively a wide range of autoimmune diseases including insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, celiac disease, anaemia perniciosa, possible inner ear disease and severe hair loss. For the genetic evaluation, conventional cytogenetic analysis and FISH with different X specific probes were initially performed. The complexity of these results and the variety of autoimmune problems of the patient prompted us to identify the exact composition and breakpoints of the rearranged X as well as methylation status of the X chromosomes. The high resolution array-CGH (assembly GRCh37/hg19) detected single copy for the whole chromosome X short arm. Two different sized segments of Xq arm were present in three copies: one large size of 80,3 Mb from Xq11.1 to Xq27.3 region and another smaller (11,1 Mb) from Xq27.3 to Xq28 region. An 1,6 Mb Xq27.3 region of the long arm was present in two copies. Southern blot analysis identified a skewed X inactivation with ≈ 70:30 % ratios of methylated/unmethylated fragments. The G-band and FISH patterns of the rearranged X suggested the aspect of a restructured i(Xq) chromosome which was shattered and fortuitously repaired. The X-STR genotype analysis of the family detected that the patient inherited intact maternal X chromosome and a rearranged paternal X chromosome. The multiple Xq breakages and fusions as well as inverted duplication would have been expected to cause a severe Turner phenotype. However, the patient lacks many of the classic somatic features of Turner syndrome, instead she presented multiorgan autoimmune diseases. Conclusions: The clinical data of the presented patient suggest that fragmentation of the i(Xq) chromosome elevates the risk of autoimmune diseases.

Original languageEnglish
Article number51
JournalMolecular Cytogenetics
Volume8
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jul 19 2015

Keywords

  • Autoimmune disease
  • Complex X chromosome rearrangement
  • Turner syndrome
  • Type 1 diabetes mellitus
  • X inactivation disorder

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Medicine
  • Molecular Biology
  • Genetics
  • Genetics(clinical)
  • Biochemistry, medical

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