The diagnosis of breast cancer has become more complex in the past 20 years. Intraoperative diagnosis has been mostly replaced by multidisciplinary preoperative/nonoperative diagnostics. Surgical treatment can be planned in advance for the breast as well as for the axilla. In many cases, routinely performed radical surgery has been replaced by selectively applied, less radical, conservative operations (sectoral or wide local excisions, sentinel lymph node biopsy) that are suitable for smaller tumours mostly detected by screening. In addition to prognostic markers listed in the pathology reports (lymph node status, tumour size, vascular invasion, status of resection margins), an increasing emphasis has been placed on predictive markers (estrogen receptors, progesterone receptors, HER-2, basal and proliferation markers) that allow molecular typing of breast carcinomas and that mostly influence systemic treatment. Tools to predict the efficiency of treatment have become increasingly available, and these might also help in planning neoadjuvant therapies, a modality which has also been introduced in the past 20 years. The present article gives a brief, subjective, thematic insight into some of these changes, selected on the basis of their relation to the pathological diagnosis of breast carcinoma.
|Number of pages||7|
|Journal||Lege Artis Medicinae|
|Publication status||Published - Jan 1 2012|
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