Complementary feeding

A commentary by the ESPGHAN committee on nutrition

Carlo Agostoni, T. Decsi, Mary Fewtrell, Olivier Goulet, Sanja Kolacek, Berthold Koletzko, Kim Fleischer Michaelsen, Luis Moreno, John Puntis, Jacques Rigo, Raanan Shamir, Hania Szajewska, Dominique Turck, Johannes van Goudoever, Helena Ferreira

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

This position paper on complementary feeding summarizes evidence for health effects of complementary foods. It focuses on healthy infants in Europe. After reviewing current knowledge and practices, we have formulated these conclusions: Exclusive or full breast-feeding for about 6 months is a desirable goal. Complementary feeding (ie, solid foods and liquids other than breast milk or infant formula and follow-on formula) should not be introduced before 17 weeks and not later than 26 weeks. There is no convincing scientific evidence that avoidance or delayed introduction of potentially allergenic foods, such as fish and eggs, reduces allergies, either in infants considered at increased risk for the development of allergy or in those not considered to be at increased risk. During the complementary feeding period, >90% of the iron requirements of a breast-fed infant must be met by complementary foods, which should provide sufficient bioavailable iron. Cow's milk is a poor source of iron and should not be used as the main drink before 12 months, although small volumes may be added to complementary foods. It is prudent to avoid both early (=7 months) introduction of gluten, and to introduce gluten gradually while the infant is still breast-fed, inasmuch as this may reduce the risk of celiac disease, type 1 diabetes mellitus, and wheat allergy. Infants and young children receiving a vegetarian diet should receive a sufficient amount (∼500 ml) of breast milk or formula and dairy products. Infants and young children should not be fed a vegan diet.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)87-89
Number of pages3
JournalNascer e Crescer
Volume17
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2008

Fingerprint

Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
Food
Iron
Glutens
Human Milk
Wheat Hypersensitivity
Breast
Egg Hypersensitivity
Vegetarian Diet
Infant Formula
Dairy Products
Celiac Disease
Breast Feeding
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
Hypersensitivity
Fishes
Milk
Health

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

Cite this

Agostoni, C., Decsi, T., Fewtrell, M., Goulet, O., Kolacek, S., Koletzko, B., ... Ferreira, H. (2008). Complementary feeding: A commentary by the ESPGHAN committee on nutrition. Nascer e Crescer, 17(2), 87-89.

Complementary feeding : A commentary by the ESPGHAN committee on nutrition. / Agostoni, Carlo; Decsi, T.; Fewtrell, Mary; Goulet, Olivier; Kolacek, Sanja; Koletzko, Berthold; Michaelsen, Kim Fleischer; Moreno, Luis; Puntis, John; Rigo, Jacques; Shamir, Raanan; Szajewska, Hania; Turck, Dominique; van Goudoever, Johannes; Ferreira, Helena.

In: Nascer e Crescer, Vol. 17, No. 2, 2008, p. 87-89.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Agostoni, C, Decsi, T, Fewtrell, M, Goulet, O, Kolacek, S, Koletzko, B, Michaelsen, KF, Moreno, L, Puntis, J, Rigo, J, Shamir, R, Szajewska, H, Turck, D, van Goudoever, J & Ferreira, H 2008, 'Complementary feeding: A commentary by the ESPGHAN committee on nutrition', Nascer e Crescer, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 87-89.
Agostoni C, Decsi T, Fewtrell M, Goulet O, Kolacek S, Koletzko B et al. Complementary feeding: A commentary by the ESPGHAN committee on nutrition. Nascer e Crescer. 2008;17(2):87-89.
Agostoni, Carlo ; Decsi, T. ; Fewtrell, Mary ; Goulet, Olivier ; Kolacek, Sanja ; Koletzko, Berthold ; Michaelsen, Kim Fleischer ; Moreno, Luis ; Puntis, John ; Rigo, Jacques ; Shamir, Raanan ; Szajewska, Hania ; Turck, Dominique ; van Goudoever, Johannes ; Ferreira, Helena. / Complementary feeding : A commentary by the ESPGHAN committee on nutrition. In: Nascer e Crescer. 2008 ; Vol. 17, No. 2. pp. 87-89.
@article{11a7e36ba5484495ae8e91f449ba4a9c,
title = "Complementary feeding: A commentary by the ESPGHAN committee on nutrition",
abstract = "This position paper on complementary feeding summarizes evidence for health effects of complementary foods. It focuses on healthy infants in Europe. After reviewing current knowledge and practices, we have formulated these conclusions: Exclusive or full breast-feeding for about 6 months is a desirable goal. Complementary feeding (ie, solid foods and liquids other than breast milk or infant formula and follow-on formula) should not be introduced before 17 weeks and not later than 26 weeks. There is no convincing scientific evidence that avoidance or delayed introduction of potentially allergenic foods, such as fish and eggs, reduces allergies, either in infants considered at increased risk for the development of allergy or in those not considered to be at increased risk. During the complementary feeding period, >90{\%} of the iron requirements of a breast-fed infant must be met by complementary foods, which should provide sufficient bioavailable iron. Cow's milk is a poor source of iron and should not be used as the main drink before 12 months, although small volumes may be added to complementary foods. It is prudent to avoid both early (=7 months) introduction of gluten, and to introduce gluten gradually while the infant is still breast-fed, inasmuch as this may reduce the risk of celiac disease, type 1 diabetes mellitus, and wheat allergy. Infants and young children receiving a vegetarian diet should receive a sufficient amount (∼500 ml) of breast milk or formula and dairy products. Infants and young children should not be fed a vegan diet.",
author = "Carlo Agostoni and T. Decsi and Mary Fewtrell and Olivier Goulet and Sanja Kolacek and Berthold Koletzko and Michaelsen, {Kim Fleischer} and Luis Moreno and John Puntis and Jacques Rigo and Raanan Shamir and Hania Szajewska and Dominique Turck and {van Goudoever}, Johannes and Helena Ferreira",
year = "2008",
language = "English",
volume = "17",
pages = "87--89",
journal = "Nascer e Crescer",
issn = "0872-0754",
publisher = "Hospital de Criancas Maria Pia",
number = "2",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Complementary feeding

T2 - A commentary by the ESPGHAN committee on nutrition

AU - Agostoni, Carlo

AU - Decsi, T.

AU - Fewtrell, Mary

AU - Goulet, Olivier

AU - Kolacek, Sanja

AU - Koletzko, Berthold

AU - Michaelsen, Kim Fleischer

AU - Moreno, Luis

AU - Puntis, John

AU - Rigo, Jacques

AU - Shamir, Raanan

AU - Szajewska, Hania

AU - Turck, Dominique

AU - van Goudoever, Johannes

AU - Ferreira, Helena

PY - 2008

Y1 - 2008

N2 - This position paper on complementary feeding summarizes evidence for health effects of complementary foods. It focuses on healthy infants in Europe. After reviewing current knowledge and practices, we have formulated these conclusions: Exclusive or full breast-feeding for about 6 months is a desirable goal. Complementary feeding (ie, solid foods and liquids other than breast milk or infant formula and follow-on formula) should not be introduced before 17 weeks and not later than 26 weeks. There is no convincing scientific evidence that avoidance or delayed introduction of potentially allergenic foods, such as fish and eggs, reduces allergies, either in infants considered at increased risk for the development of allergy or in those not considered to be at increased risk. During the complementary feeding period, >90% of the iron requirements of a breast-fed infant must be met by complementary foods, which should provide sufficient bioavailable iron. Cow's milk is a poor source of iron and should not be used as the main drink before 12 months, although small volumes may be added to complementary foods. It is prudent to avoid both early (=7 months) introduction of gluten, and to introduce gluten gradually while the infant is still breast-fed, inasmuch as this may reduce the risk of celiac disease, type 1 diabetes mellitus, and wheat allergy. Infants and young children receiving a vegetarian diet should receive a sufficient amount (∼500 ml) of breast milk or formula and dairy products. Infants and young children should not be fed a vegan diet.

AB - This position paper on complementary feeding summarizes evidence for health effects of complementary foods. It focuses on healthy infants in Europe. After reviewing current knowledge and practices, we have formulated these conclusions: Exclusive or full breast-feeding for about 6 months is a desirable goal. Complementary feeding (ie, solid foods and liquids other than breast milk or infant formula and follow-on formula) should not be introduced before 17 weeks and not later than 26 weeks. There is no convincing scientific evidence that avoidance or delayed introduction of potentially allergenic foods, such as fish and eggs, reduces allergies, either in infants considered at increased risk for the development of allergy or in those not considered to be at increased risk. During the complementary feeding period, >90% of the iron requirements of a breast-fed infant must be met by complementary foods, which should provide sufficient bioavailable iron. Cow's milk is a poor source of iron and should not be used as the main drink before 12 months, although small volumes may be added to complementary foods. It is prudent to avoid both early (=7 months) introduction of gluten, and to introduce gluten gradually while the infant is still breast-fed, inasmuch as this may reduce the risk of celiac disease, type 1 diabetes mellitus, and wheat allergy. Infants and young children receiving a vegetarian diet should receive a sufficient amount (∼500 ml) of breast milk or formula and dairy products. Infants and young children should not be fed a vegan diet.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=50049123325&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=50049123325&partnerID=8YFLogxK

M3 - Article

VL - 17

SP - 87

EP - 89

JO - Nascer e Crescer

JF - Nascer e Crescer

SN - 0872-0754

IS - 2

ER -