Introduction: Early diagnosis and adequate care of gestational diabetes is of great importance for both the mother and her fetus. Although several national and international guidelines are known on the methodology for screening gestational diabetes, a not negligible part of the cases remain unrecognized when applying even the most widely used criteria recommended by the World Health Organization (1st recommendation). A connection has been found between the maternal blood glucose values and the prevalence of still-birth, preeclampsia and large for gestational age neonates in several studies, from which the Hyperglycaemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes study has come into prominence. According to conclusions of this study the International Association of Diabetic Pregnancy Study Groups suggested new numeric criteria for the evaluation of the 75-gramm oral glucose tolerance test (2nd rercommendation), which differs from the evaluation used in the afore mentioned screening system. Aims: The aim of the study was to compare the effectiveness of the two screening systems by evaluation of the pregnancy outcomes. Methods: By following non-twin pregnancies of 1107 pregnant mothers (831 with normal glucose tolerance, 276 with gestational diabetes based on any of the applied screening methods) the maternal (pre- and postterminal birth, caesarean section, toxaemia) and newborns pregnancy outcomes (infants small and large for gestational age, hypoglycaemia) were analysed. Results: With the exception of the prevalence of large for gestational age infants - which was higher among women screened by the new evaluation - no substantial difference in the efficacy of the two investigated methods was found. Conclusion: The decision whether the screening of gestational diabetes using the new criteria results in safer recognition of the disturbances of glucose metabolism during pregnancy requires further investigations including a large number of cases.
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