Comparison of intestinal warm ischemic injury in PACAP knockout and wild-type mice

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Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is present in the gastrointestinal tract and plays a central role in the intestinal physiology, mainly in the secretion and motility. The aim of our study was to compare the ischemic injury in wild-type and PACAP-38 knockout mice following warm mesenteric small bowel ischemia. Warm ischemia groups were designed with occlusion of superior mesenteric artery for 1, 3, and 6 h in wild-type (n∈=∈10 in each group) and PACAP-38 knockout (n∈=∈10 in each group) mice. Small bowel biopsies were collected after laparotomy (control) and at the end of the ischemia periods. To determine oxidative stress parameters, malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were measured. Tissue damage was analyzed by qualitative and quantitative methods on hematoxylin/eosin-stained sections. In PACAP-38 knockout animals, tissue MDA increased significantly after 3 and 6 h ischemia (133. 97∈±∈6,2; 141.86∈±∈5,8) compared to sham-operated (100.92∈±∈3,6) and compared to wild-type results (112.8∈±∈2,1; 118.4∈±∈1.03 μmol/g, p∈<∈0.05). Meanwhile, tissue concentration of GSH and activity of SOD decreased significantly in knockout mice compared to wild-type form (GSH, 795.97∈±∈10.4; 665.1∈±∈8,8 vs. 893.23∈±∈μmol/g; SOD, 94.4∈±∈1.4; 81.2∈±∈3.9 vs. 208.09∈±∈3,7 IU/g). Qualitative and quantitative histological results showed destruction of the mucous, submucous layers, and crypts in knockout mice compared to wild-type tissues. These processes correlated with the warm ischemia periods. Our present results propose an important protective effect of endogenous PACAP-38 against intestinal warm ischemia, which provides basis for further investigation to elucidate the mechanism of this protective effect.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)435-442
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Molecular Neuroscience
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Nov 1 2010


  • Oxidative stress
  • PACAP-38
  • Small bowel
  • Tissue injury
  • Warm ischemia

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience

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