Comparing results from two continental geochemical surveys to world soil composition and deriving Predicted Empirical Global Soil (PEGS2) reference values

Patrice De Caritat, Clemens Reimann, E. Bastrakov, D. Bowbridge, P. Boyle, S. Briggs, D. Brown, M. Brown, K. Brownlie, P. Burrows, G. Burton, J. Byass, P. de Caritat, N. Chanthapanya, M. Cooper, L. Cranfield, S. Curtis, T. Denaro, C. Dhnaram, T. DhuG. Diprose, A. Fabris, M. Fairclough, S. Fanning, R. Fidler, M. Fitzell, P. Flitcroft, C. Fricke, D. Fulton, J. Furlonger, G. Gordon, A. Green, G. Green, J. Greenfield, J. Harley, S. Heawood, T. Hegvold, K. Henderson, E. House, Z. Husain, B. Krsteska, J. Lam, R. Langford, T. Lavigne, B. Linehan, M. Livingstone, A. Lukss, R. Maier, A. Makuei, L. McCabe, P. McDonald, D. McIlroy, D. McIntyre, P. Morris, G. O'Connell, B. Pappas, J. Parsons, C. Petrick, B. Poignand, R. Roberts, J. Ryle, A. Seymon, K. Sherry, J. Skinner, M. Smith, C. Strickland, S. Sutton, R. Swindell, H. Tait, J. Tang, A. Thomson, C. Thun, B. Uppill, K. Wall, J. Watkins, T. Watson, L. Webber, A. Whiting, J. Wilford, T. Wilson, A. Wygralak, S. Albanese, M. Andersson, A. Arnoldussen, R. Baritz, M. J. Batista, A. Bel-lan, M. Birke, D. Cicchella, A. Demetriades, E. Dinelli, B. DeVivo, W. DeVos, M. Duris, A. Dusza-Dobek, O. A. Eggen, M. Eklund, V. Ernstsen, P. Filzmoser, T. E. Finne, D. Flight, S. Forrester, M. Fuchs, U. Fugedi, A. Gilucis, M. Gosar, V. Gregorauskiene, A. Gulan, J. Halamic, E. Haslinger, P. Hayoz, G. Hobiger, R. Hoffmann, J. Hoogewerff, H. Hrvatovic, S. Husnjak, L. Janik, C. C. Johnson, G. Jordán, J. Kirby, J. Kivisilla, V. Klos, F. Krone, P. Kwecko, L. Kuti, A. Ladenberger, A. Lima, J. Locutura, P. Lucivjansky, D. Mackovych, B. I. Malyuk, R. Maquil, M. McLaughlin, R. G. Meuli, N. Miosic, G. Mol, P. Négrel, P. O'Connor, K. Oorts, R. T. Ottesen, A. Pasieczna, V. Petersell, S. Pfleiderer, M. Ponavic, C. Prazeres, U. Rauch, C. Reimann, I. Salpeteur, A. Schedl, A. Scheib, I. Schoeters, P. Sefcik, E. Sellersjö, F. Skopljak, I. Slaninka, A. Šorša, R. Srvkota, T. Stafilov, T. Tarvainen, V. Trendavilov, P. Valera, V. Verougstraete, D. Vidojevic, A. M. Zissimos, Z. Zomeni

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

40 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Analytical data for 10 major oxides (Al 2O 3, CaO, Fe 2O 3, K 2O, MgO, MnO, Na 2O, P 2O 5, SiO 2 and TiO 2), 16 total trace elements (As, Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, Ga, Nb, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sr, Th, V, Y, Zn and Zr), 14 aqua regia extracted elements (Ag, As, Bi, Cd, Ce, Co, Cs, Cu, Fe, La, Li, Mn, Mo and Pb), Loss On Ignition (LOI) and pH from 3526 soil samples from two continents (Australia and Europe) are presented and compared to (1) the composition of the upper continental crust, (2) published world soil average values, and (3) data from other continental-scale soil surveys. It can be demonstrated that average upper continental crust values do not provide reliable estimates for natural concentrations of elements in soils. For many elements there exist substantial differences between published world soil averages and the median concentrations observed on two continents. Direct comparison with other continental datasets is hampered by the fact that often mean, instead of the statistically more robust median, is reported. Using a database of the worldwide distribution of lithological units, it can be demonstrated that lithology is a poor predictor of soil chemistry. Climate-related processes such as glaciation and weathering are strong modifiers of the geochemical signature inherited from bedrock during pedogenesis. To overcome existing shortcomings of predicted global or world soil geochemical reference values, we propose Preliminary Empirical Global Soil reference values based on analytical results of a representative number of soil samples from two continents (PEGS2).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)269-276
Number of pages8
JournalEarth and Planetary Science Letters
Volume319-320
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Feb 15 2012

Fingerprint

Geochemical surveys
geochemical survey
soils
Soils
Chemical analysis
soil
continents
upper crust
continental crust
Soil surveys
crusts
soil chemistry
soil survey
pedogenesis
Lithology
world
Trace Elements
Weathering
glaciation
lithology

Keywords

  • Critical Zone
  • Geochemistry
  • Global soil composition
  • Major elements
  • Regolith
  • Trace elements

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geochemistry and Petrology
  • Geophysics
  • Earth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)
  • Space and Planetary Science

Cite this

Comparing results from two continental geochemical surveys to world soil composition and deriving Predicted Empirical Global Soil (PEGS2) reference values. / De Caritat, Patrice; Reimann, Clemens; Bastrakov, E.; Bowbridge, D.; Boyle, P.; Briggs, S.; Brown, D.; Brown, M.; Brownlie, K.; Burrows, P.; Burton, G.; Byass, J.; de Caritat, P.; Chanthapanya, N.; Cooper, M.; Cranfield, L.; Curtis, S.; Denaro, T.; Dhnaram, C.; Dhu, T.; Diprose, G.; Fabris, A.; Fairclough, M.; Fanning, S.; Fidler, R.; Fitzell, M.; Flitcroft, P.; Fricke, C.; Fulton, D.; Furlonger, J.; Gordon, G.; Green, A.; Green, G.; Greenfield, J.; Harley, J.; Heawood, S.; Hegvold, T.; Henderson, K.; House, E.; Husain, Z.; Krsteska, B.; Lam, J.; Langford, R.; Lavigne, T.; Linehan, B.; Livingstone, M.; Lukss, A.; Maier, R.; Makuei, A.; McCabe, L.; McDonald, P.; McIlroy, D.; McIntyre, D.; Morris, P.; O'Connell, G.; Pappas, B.; Parsons, J.; Petrick, C.; Poignand, B.; Roberts, R.; Ryle, J.; Seymon, A.; Sherry, K.; Skinner, J.; Smith, M.; Strickland, C.; Sutton, S.; Swindell, R.; Tait, H.; Tang, J.; Thomson, A.; Thun, C.; Uppill, B.; Wall, K.; Watkins, J.; Watson, T.; Webber, L.; Whiting, A.; Wilford, J.; Wilson, T.; Wygralak, A.; Albanese, S.; Andersson, M.; Arnoldussen, A.; Baritz, R.; Batista, M. J.; Bel-lan, A.; Birke, M.; Cicchella, D.; Demetriades, A.; Dinelli, E.; DeVivo, B.; DeVos, W.; Duris, M.; Dusza-Dobek, A.; Eggen, O. A.; Eklund, M.; Ernstsen, V.; Filzmoser, P.; Finne, T. E.; Flight, D.; Forrester, S.; Fuchs, M.; Fugedi, U.; Gilucis, A.; Gosar, M.; Gregorauskiene, V.; Gulan, A.; Halamic, J.; Haslinger, E.; Hayoz, P.; Hobiger, G.; Hoffmann, R.; Hoogewerff, J.; Hrvatovic, H.; Husnjak, S.; Janik, L.; Johnson, C. C.; Jordán, G.; Kirby, J.; Kivisilla, J.; Klos, V.; Krone, F.; Kwecko, P.; Kuti, L.; Ladenberger, A.; Lima, A.; Locutura, J.; Lucivjansky, P.; Mackovych, D.; Malyuk, B. I.; Maquil, R.; McLaughlin, M.; Meuli, R. G.; Miosic, N.; Mol, G.; Négrel, P.; O'Connor, P.; Oorts, K.; Ottesen, R. T.; Pasieczna, A.; Petersell, V.; Pfleiderer, S.; Ponavic, M.; Prazeres, C.; Rauch, U.; Reimann, C.; Salpeteur, I.; Schedl, A.; Scheib, A.; Schoeters, I.; Sefcik, P.; Sellersjö, E.; Skopljak, F.; Slaninka, I.; Šorša, A.; Srvkota, R.; Stafilov, T.; Tarvainen, T.; Trendavilov, V.; Valera, P.; Verougstraete, V.; Vidojevic, D.; Zissimos, A. M.; Zomeni, Z.

In: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 319-320, 15.02.2012, p. 269-276.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

De Caritat, P, Reimann, C, Bastrakov, E, Bowbridge, D, Boyle, P, Briggs, S, Brown, D, Brown, M, Brownlie, K, Burrows, P, Burton, G, Byass, J, de Caritat, P, Chanthapanya, N, Cooper, M, Cranfield, L, Curtis, S, Denaro, T, Dhnaram, C, Dhu, T, Diprose, G, Fabris, A, Fairclough, M, Fanning, S, Fidler, R, Fitzell, M, Flitcroft, P, Fricke, C, Fulton, D, Furlonger, J, Gordon, G, Green, A, Green, G, Greenfield, J, Harley, J, Heawood, S, Hegvold, T, Henderson, K, House, E, Husain, Z, Krsteska, B, Lam, J, Langford, R, Lavigne, T, Linehan, B, Livingstone, M, Lukss, A, Maier, R, Makuei, A, McCabe, L, McDonald, P, McIlroy, D, McIntyre, D, Morris, P, O'Connell, G, Pappas, B, Parsons, J, Petrick, C, Poignand, B, Roberts, R, Ryle, J, Seymon, A, Sherry, K, Skinner, J, Smith, M, Strickland, C, Sutton, S, Swindell, R, Tait, H, Tang, J, Thomson, A, Thun, C, Uppill, B, Wall, K, Watkins, J, Watson, T, Webber, L, Whiting, A, Wilford, J, Wilson, T, Wygralak, A, Albanese, S, Andersson, M, Arnoldussen, A, Baritz, R, Batista, MJ, Bel-lan, A, Birke, M, Cicchella, D, Demetriades, A, Dinelli, E, DeVivo, B, DeVos, W, Duris, M, Dusza-Dobek, A, Eggen, OA, Eklund, M, Ernstsen, V, Filzmoser, P, Finne, TE, Flight, D, Forrester, S, Fuchs, M, Fugedi, U, Gilucis, A, Gosar, M, Gregorauskiene, V, Gulan, A, Halamic, J, Haslinger, E, Hayoz, P, Hobiger, G, Hoffmann, R, Hoogewerff, J, Hrvatovic, H, Husnjak, S, Janik, L, Johnson, CC, Jordán, G, Kirby, J, Kivisilla, J, Klos, V, Krone, F, Kwecko, P, Kuti, L, Ladenberger, A, Lima, A, Locutura, J, Lucivjansky, P, Mackovych, D, Malyuk, BI, Maquil, R, McLaughlin, M, Meuli, RG, Miosic, N, Mol, G, Négrel, P, O'Connor, P, Oorts, K, Ottesen, RT, Pasieczna, A, Petersell, V, Pfleiderer, S, Ponavic, M, Prazeres, C, Rauch, U, Reimann, C, Salpeteur, I, Schedl, A, Scheib, A, Schoeters, I, Sefcik, P, Sellersjö, E, Skopljak, F, Slaninka, I, Šorša, A, Srvkota, R, Stafilov, T, Tarvainen, T, Trendavilov, V, Valera, P, Verougstraete, V, Vidojevic, D, Zissimos, AM & Zomeni, Z 2012, 'Comparing results from two continental geochemical surveys to world soil composition and deriving Predicted Empirical Global Soil (PEGS2) reference values', Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol. 319-320, pp. 269-276. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2011.12.033
De Caritat, Patrice ; Reimann, Clemens ; Bastrakov, E. ; Bowbridge, D. ; Boyle, P. ; Briggs, S. ; Brown, D. ; Brown, M. ; Brownlie, K. ; Burrows, P. ; Burton, G. ; Byass, J. ; de Caritat, P. ; Chanthapanya, N. ; Cooper, M. ; Cranfield, L. ; Curtis, S. ; Denaro, T. ; Dhnaram, C. ; Dhu, T. ; Diprose, G. ; Fabris, A. ; Fairclough, M. ; Fanning, S. ; Fidler, R. ; Fitzell, M. ; Flitcroft, P. ; Fricke, C. ; Fulton, D. ; Furlonger, J. ; Gordon, G. ; Green, A. ; Green, G. ; Greenfield, J. ; Harley, J. ; Heawood, S. ; Hegvold, T. ; Henderson, K. ; House, E. ; Husain, Z. ; Krsteska, B. ; Lam, J. ; Langford, R. ; Lavigne, T. ; Linehan, B. ; Livingstone, M. ; Lukss, A. ; Maier, R. ; Makuei, A. ; McCabe, L. ; McDonald, P. ; McIlroy, D. ; McIntyre, D. ; Morris, P. ; O'Connell, G. ; Pappas, B. ; Parsons, J. ; Petrick, C. ; Poignand, B. ; Roberts, R. ; Ryle, J. ; Seymon, A. ; Sherry, K. ; Skinner, J. ; Smith, M. ; Strickland, C. ; Sutton, S. ; Swindell, R. ; Tait, H. ; Tang, J. ; Thomson, A. ; Thun, C. ; Uppill, B. ; Wall, K. ; Watkins, J. ; Watson, T. ; Webber, L. ; Whiting, A. ; Wilford, J. ; Wilson, T. ; Wygralak, A. ; Albanese, S. ; Andersson, M. ; Arnoldussen, A. ; Baritz, R. ; Batista, M. J. ; Bel-lan, A. ; Birke, M. ; Cicchella, D. ; Demetriades, A. ; Dinelli, E. ; DeVivo, B. ; DeVos, W. ; Duris, M. ; Dusza-Dobek, A. ; Eggen, O. A. ; Eklund, M. ; Ernstsen, V. ; Filzmoser, P. ; Finne, T. E. ; Flight, D. ; Forrester, S. ; Fuchs, M. ; Fugedi, U. ; Gilucis, A. ; Gosar, M. ; Gregorauskiene, V. ; Gulan, A. ; Halamic, J. ; Haslinger, E. ; Hayoz, P. ; Hobiger, G. ; Hoffmann, R. ; Hoogewerff, J. ; Hrvatovic, H. ; Husnjak, S. ; Janik, L. ; Johnson, C. C. ; Jordán, G. ; Kirby, J. ; Kivisilla, J. ; Klos, V. ; Krone, F. ; Kwecko, P. ; Kuti, L. ; Ladenberger, A. ; Lima, A. ; Locutura, J. ; Lucivjansky, P. ; Mackovych, D. ; Malyuk, B. I. ; Maquil, R. ; McLaughlin, M. ; Meuli, R. G. ; Miosic, N. ; Mol, G. ; Négrel, P. ; O'Connor, P. ; Oorts, K. ; Ottesen, R. T. ; Pasieczna, A. ; Petersell, V. ; Pfleiderer, S. ; Ponavic, M. ; Prazeres, C. ; Rauch, U. ; Reimann, C. ; Salpeteur, I. ; Schedl, A. ; Scheib, A. ; Schoeters, I. ; Sefcik, P. ; Sellersjö, E. ; Skopljak, F. ; Slaninka, I. ; Šorša, A. ; Srvkota, R. ; Stafilov, T. ; Tarvainen, T. ; Trendavilov, V. ; Valera, P. ; Verougstraete, V. ; Vidojevic, D. ; Zissimos, A. M. ; Zomeni, Z. / Comparing results from two continental geochemical surveys to world soil composition and deriving Predicted Empirical Global Soil (PEGS2) reference values. In: Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 2012 ; Vol. 319-320. pp. 269-276.
@article{960ff6937b2e42708cb129ad0179ff96,
title = "Comparing results from two continental geochemical surveys to world soil composition and deriving Predicted Empirical Global Soil (PEGS2) reference values",
abstract = "Analytical data for 10 major oxides (Al 2O 3, CaO, Fe 2O 3, K 2O, MgO, MnO, Na 2O, P 2O 5, SiO 2 and TiO 2), 16 total trace elements (As, Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, Ga, Nb, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sr, Th, V, Y, Zn and Zr), 14 aqua regia extracted elements (Ag, As, Bi, Cd, Ce, Co, Cs, Cu, Fe, La, Li, Mn, Mo and Pb), Loss On Ignition (LOI) and pH from 3526 soil samples from two continents (Australia and Europe) are presented and compared to (1) the composition of the upper continental crust, (2) published world soil average values, and (3) data from other continental-scale soil surveys. It can be demonstrated that average upper continental crust values do not provide reliable estimates for natural concentrations of elements in soils. For many elements there exist substantial differences between published world soil averages and the median concentrations observed on two continents. Direct comparison with other continental datasets is hampered by the fact that often mean, instead of the statistically more robust median, is reported. Using a database of the worldwide distribution of lithological units, it can be demonstrated that lithology is a poor predictor of soil chemistry. Climate-related processes such as glaciation and weathering are strong modifiers of the geochemical signature inherited from bedrock during pedogenesis. To overcome existing shortcomings of predicted global or world soil geochemical reference values, we propose Preliminary Empirical Global Soil reference values based on analytical results of a representative number of soil samples from two continents (PEGS2).",
keywords = "Critical Zone, Geochemistry, Global soil composition, Major elements, Regolith, Trace elements",
author = "{De Caritat}, Patrice and Clemens Reimann and E. Bastrakov and D. Bowbridge and P. Boyle and S. Briggs and D. Brown and M. Brown and K. Brownlie and P. Burrows and G. Burton and J. Byass and {de Caritat}, P. and N. Chanthapanya and M. Cooper and L. Cranfield and S. Curtis and T. Denaro and C. Dhnaram and T. Dhu and G. Diprose and A. Fabris and M. Fairclough and S. Fanning and R. Fidler and M. Fitzell and P. Flitcroft and C. Fricke and D. Fulton and J. Furlonger and G. Gordon and A. Green and G. Green and J. Greenfield and J. Harley and S. Heawood and T. Hegvold and K. Henderson and E. House and Z. Husain and B. Krsteska and J. Lam and R. Langford and T. Lavigne and B. Linehan and M. Livingstone and A. Lukss and R. Maier and A. Makuei and L. McCabe and P. McDonald and D. McIlroy and D. McIntyre and P. Morris and G. O'Connell and B. Pappas and J. Parsons and C. Petrick and B. Poignand and R. Roberts and J. Ryle and A. Seymon and K. Sherry and J. Skinner and M. Smith and C. Strickland and S. Sutton and R. Swindell and H. Tait and J. Tang and A. Thomson and C. Thun and B. Uppill and K. Wall and J. Watkins and T. Watson and L. Webber and A. Whiting and J. Wilford and T. Wilson and A. Wygralak and S. Albanese and M. Andersson and A. Arnoldussen and R. Baritz and Batista, {M. J.} and A. Bel-lan and M. Birke and D. Cicchella and A. Demetriades and E. Dinelli and B. DeVivo and W. DeVos and M. Duris and A. Dusza-Dobek and Eggen, {O. A.} and M. Eklund and V. Ernstsen and P. Filzmoser and Finne, {T. E.} and D. Flight and S. Forrester and M. Fuchs and U. Fugedi and A. Gilucis and M. Gosar and V. Gregorauskiene and A. Gulan and J. Halamic and E. Haslinger and P. Hayoz and G. Hobiger and R. Hoffmann and J. Hoogewerff and H. Hrvatovic and S. Husnjak and L. Janik and Johnson, {C. C.} and G. Jord{\'a}n and J. Kirby and J. Kivisilla and V. Klos and F. Krone and P. Kwecko and L. Kuti and A. Ladenberger and A. Lima and J. Locutura and P. Lucivjansky and D. Mackovych and Malyuk, {B. I.} and R. Maquil and M. McLaughlin and Meuli, {R. G.} and N. Miosic and G. Mol and P. N{\'e}grel and P. O'Connor and K. Oorts and Ottesen, {R. T.} and A. Pasieczna and V. Petersell and S. Pfleiderer and M. Ponavic and C. Prazeres and U. Rauch and C. Reimann and I. Salpeteur and A. Schedl and A. Scheib and I. Schoeters and P. Sefcik and E. Sellersj{\"o} and F. Skopljak and I. Slaninka and A. Šorša and R. Srvkota and T. Stafilov and T. Tarvainen and V. Trendavilov and P. Valera and V. Verougstraete and D. Vidojevic and Zissimos, {A. M.} and Z. Zomeni",
year = "2012",
month = "2",
day = "15",
doi = "10.1016/j.epsl.2011.12.033",
language = "English",
volume = "319-320",
pages = "269--276",
journal = "Earth and Planetary Sciences Letters",
issn = "0012-821X",
publisher = "Elsevier",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Comparing results from two continental geochemical surveys to world soil composition and deriving Predicted Empirical Global Soil (PEGS2) reference values

AU - De Caritat, Patrice

AU - Reimann, Clemens

AU - Bastrakov, E.

AU - Bowbridge, D.

AU - Boyle, P.

AU - Briggs, S.

AU - Brown, D.

AU - Brown, M.

AU - Brownlie, K.

AU - Burrows, P.

AU - Burton, G.

AU - Byass, J.

AU - de Caritat, P.

AU - Chanthapanya, N.

AU - Cooper, M.

AU - Cranfield, L.

AU - Curtis, S.

AU - Denaro, T.

AU - Dhnaram, C.

AU - Dhu, T.

AU - Diprose, G.

AU - Fabris, A.

AU - Fairclough, M.

AU - Fanning, S.

AU - Fidler, R.

AU - Fitzell, M.

AU - Flitcroft, P.

AU - Fricke, C.

AU - Fulton, D.

AU - Furlonger, J.

AU - Gordon, G.

AU - Green, A.

AU - Green, G.

AU - Greenfield, J.

AU - Harley, J.

AU - Heawood, S.

AU - Hegvold, T.

AU - Henderson, K.

AU - House, E.

AU - Husain, Z.

AU - Krsteska, B.

AU - Lam, J.

AU - Langford, R.

AU - Lavigne, T.

AU - Linehan, B.

AU - Livingstone, M.

AU - Lukss, A.

AU - Maier, R.

AU - Makuei, A.

AU - McCabe, L.

AU - McDonald, P.

AU - McIlroy, D.

AU - McIntyre, D.

AU - Morris, P.

AU - O'Connell, G.

AU - Pappas, B.

AU - Parsons, J.

AU - Petrick, C.

AU - Poignand, B.

AU - Roberts, R.

AU - Ryle, J.

AU - Seymon, A.

AU - Sherry, K.

AU - Skinner, J.

AU - Smith, M.

AU - Strickland, C.

AU - Sutton, S.

AU - Swindell, R.

AU - Tait, H.

AU - Tang, J.

AU - Thomson, A.

AU - Thun, C.

AU - Uppill, B.

AU - Wall, K.

AU - Watkins, J.

AU - Watson, T.

AU - Webber, L.

AU - Whiting, A.

AU - Wilford, J.

AU - Wilson, T.

AU - Wygralak, A.

AU - Albanese, S.

AU - Andersson, M.

AU - Arnoldussen, A.

AU - Baritz, R.

AU - Batista, M. J.

AU - Bel-lan, A.

AU - Birke, M.

AU - Cicchella, D.

AU - Demetriades, A.

AU - Dinelli, E.

AU - DeVivo, B.

AU - DeVos, W.

AU - Duris, M.

AU - Dusza-Dobek, A.

AU - Eggen, O. A.

AU - Eklund, M.

AU - Ernstsen, V.

AU - Filzmoser, P.

AU - Finne, T. E.

AU - Flight, D.

AU - Forrester, S.

AU - Fuchs, M.

AU - Fugedi, U.

AU - Gilucis, A.

AU - Gosar, M.

AU - Gregorauskiene, V.

AU - Gulan, A.

AU - Halamic, J.

AU - Haslinger, E.

AU - Hayoz, P.

AU - Hobiger, G.

AU - Hoffmann, R.

AU - Hoogewerff, J.

AU - Hrvatovic, H.

AU - Husnjak, S.

AU - Janik, L.

AU - Johnson, C. C.

AU - Jordán, G.

AU - Kirby, J.

AU - Kivisilla, J.

AU - Klos, V.

AU - Krone, F.

AU - Kwecko, P.

AU - Kuti, L.

AU - Ladenberger, A.

AU - Lima, A.

AU - Locutura, J.

AU - Lucivjansky, P.

AU - Mackovych, D.

AU - Malyuk, B. I.

AU - Maquil, R.

AU - McLaughlin, M.

AU - Meuli, R. G.

AU - Miosic, N.

AU - Mol, G.

AU - Négrel, P.

AU - O'Connor, P.

AU - Oorts, K.

AU - Ottesen, R. T.

AU - Pasieczna, A.

AU - Petersell, V.

AU - Pfleiderer, S.

AU - Ponavic, M.

AU - Prazeres, C.

AU - Rauch, U.

AU - Reimann, C.

AU - Salpeteur, I.

AU - Schedl, A.

AU - Scheib, A.

AU - Schoeters, I.

AU - Sefcik, P.

AU - Sellersjö, E.

AU - Skopljak, F.

AU - Slaninka, I.

AU - Šorša, A.

AU - Srvkota, R.

AU - Stafilov, T.

AU - Tarvainen, T.

AU - Trendavilov, V.

AU - Valera, P.

AU - Verougstraete, V.

AU - Vidojevic, D.

AU - Zissimos, A. M.

AU - Zomeni, Z.

PY - 2012/2/15

Y1 - 2012/2/15

N2 - Analytical data for 10 major oxides (Al 2O 3, CaO, Fe 2O 3, K 2O, MgO, MnO, Na 2O, P 2O 5, SiO 2 and TiO 2), 16 total trace elements (As, Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, Ga, Nb, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sr, Th, V, Y, Zn and Zr), 14 aqua regia extracted elements (Ag, As, Bi, Cd, Ce, Co, Cs, Cu, Fe, La, Li, Mn, Mo and Pb), Loss On Ignition (LOI) and pH from 3526 soil samples from two continents (Australia and Europe) are presented and compared to (1) the composition of the upper continental crust, (2) published world soil average values, and (3) data from other continental-scale soil surveys. It can be demonstrated that average upper continental crust values do not provide reliable estimates for natural concentrations of elements in soils. For many elements there exist substantial differences between published world soil averages and the median concentrations observed on two continents. Direct comparison with other continental datasets is hampered by the fact that often mean, instead of the statistically more robust median, is reported. Using a database of the worldwide distribution of lithological units, it can be demonstrated that lithology is a poor predictor of soil chemistry. Climate-related processes such as glaciation and weathering are strong modifiers of the geochemical signature inherited from bedrock during pedogenesis. To overcome existing shortcomings of predicted global or world soil geochemical reference values, we propose Preliminary Empirical Global Soil reference values based on analytical results of a representative number of soil samples from two continents (PEGS2).

AB - Analytical data for 10 major oxides (Al 2O 3, CaO, Fe 2O 3, K 2O, MgO, MnO, Na 2O, P 2O 5, SiO 2 and TiO 2), 16 total trace elements (As, Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, Ga, Nb, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sr, Th, V, Y, Zn and Zr), 14 aqua regia extracted elements (Ag, As, Bi, Cd, Ce, Co, Cs, Cu, Fe, La, Li, Mn, Mo and Pb), Loss On Ignition (LOI) and pH from 3526 soil samples from two continents (Australia and Europe) are presented and compared to (1) the composition of the upper continental crust, (2) published world soil average values, and (3) data from other continental-scale soil surveys. It can be demonstrated that average upper continental crust values do not provide reliable estimates for natural concentrations of elements in soils. For many elements there exist substantial differences between published world soil averages and the median concentrations observed on two continents. Direct comparison with other continental datasets is hampered by the fact that often mean, instead of the statistically more robust median, is reported. Using a database of the worldwide distribution of lithological units, it can be demonstrated that lithology is a poor predictor of soil chemistry. Climate-related processes such as glaciation and weathering are strong modifiers of the geochemical signature inherited from bedrock during pedogenesis. To overcome existing shortcomings of predicted global or world soil geochemical reference values, we propose Preliminary Empirical Global Soil reference values based on analytical results of a representative number of soil samples from two continents (PEGS2).

KW - Critical Zone

KW - Geochemistry

KW - Global soil composition

KW - Major elements

KW - Regolith

KW - Trace elements

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84861503408&partnerID=8YFLogxK

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U2 - 10.1016/j.epsl.2011.12.033

DO - 10.1016/j.epsl.2011.12.033

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:84861503408

VL - 319-320

SP - 269

EP - 276

JO - Earth and Planetary Sciences Letters

JF - Earth and Planetary Sciences Letters

SN - 0012-821X

ER -