Colocalized neurotransmitters in the hindbrain cooperate in adaptation to chronic hypernatremia

Rita Matuska, Dóra Zelena, Katalin Könczöl, Rege Sugárka Papp, Máté Durst, Dorina Guba, Bibiana Török, Peter Varnai, Zsuzsanna E. Tóth

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Chronic hypernatremia activates the central osmoregulatory mechanisms and inhibits the function of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis. Noradrenaline (NE) release into the periventricular anteroventral third ventricle region (AV3V), the supraoptic (SON) and hypothalamic paraventricular nuclei (PVN) from efferents of the caudal ventrolateral (cVLM) and dorsomedial (cDMM) medulla has been shown to be essential for the hypernatremia-evoked responses and for the HPA response to acute restraint. Notably, the medullary NE cell groups highly coexpress prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP) and nesfatin-1/NUCB2 (nesfatin), therefore, we assumed they contributed to the reactions to chronic hypernatremia. To investigate this, we compared two models: homozygous Brattleboro rats with hereditary diabetes insipidus (DI) and Wistar rats subjected to chronic high salt solution (HS) intake. HS rats had higher plasma osmolality than DI rats. PrRP and nesfatin mRNA levels were higher in both models, in both medullary regions compared to controls. Elevated basal tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression and impaired restraint-induced TH, PrRP and nesfatin expression elevations in the cVLM were, however, detected only in HS, but not in DI rats. Simultaneously, only HS rats exhibited classical signs of chronic stress and severely blunted hormonal reactions to acute restraint. Data suggest that HPA axis responsiveness to restraint depends on the type of hypernatremia, and on NE capacity in the cVLM. Additionally, NE and PrRP signalization primarily of medullary origin is increased in the SON, PVN and AV3V in HS rats. This suggests a cooperative action in the adaptation responses and designates the AV3V as a new site for PrRP’s action in hypernatremia.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)969-984
Number of pages16
JournalBrain Structure and Function
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Apr 1 2020


  • Brattleboro rat
  • Nesfatin-1
  • Noradrenaline
  • Prolactin-releasing peptide
  • Restraint
  • Stress

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Anatomy
  • Neuroscience(all)
  • Histology

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  • Cite this

    Matuska, R., Zelena, D., Könczöl, K., Papp, R. S., Durst, M., Guba, D., Török, B., Varnai, P., & Tóth, Z. E. (2020). Colocalized neurotransmitters in the hindbrain cooperate in adaptation to chronic hypernatremia. Brain Structure and Function, 225(3), 969-984.