Classification and unscrambling a class-inside-class situation by object target rotation: Hungarian silver coins of the Árpád Dynasty, AD 997-1301

Olav H.J. Christie, Anita Rácz, János Elek, Károly Héberger

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3 Citations (Scopus)


Classification is an important part of chemometrics and mostly based on optimization by vector rotations. The present study is a continuation of the classification of medieval Hungarian silver coins including the 16 kings of the Hungarian Árpád Dynasty (ad 997-1301) (Rácz et al.: Heritage Science 2013 1:2). The Rácz et al. paper identified three historical periods of the Árpád Dynasty from chemical data. The aim of the present study is to test whether the classification could be further refined by marker object projection-aided classification. It offers an example of the efficiency of this method in unscrambling a class-inside-class situation. The frequency distribution of concentrations of the coins is skewed and to a certain extent bimodal, and the arithmetic mean value and standard deviation around the mean frequently used in parametric methods may be poor descriptors of the information carried by the data. We test a combination of principal component decomposition and the nonparametric, noniterative object target rotation method to overcome some of the theoretical limitations of parametric methods. This test includes identification of archetypical class "Ambassadors" of each of the three historical periods of the Árpád Dynasty and shows a class-inside-class situation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)287-292
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Chemometrics
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2014



  • Class-inside-class
  • Classification
  • Coins
  • Target rotation
  • X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Applied Mathematics

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