Chronic implantation of intravascular cardioverter defibrillator in a canine model: Device stability, vascular patency, and anchor histology

Bela Merkely, Levente Molnar, Laszlo Geller, Petr Neuzil, Jan Skoda, Jacek Bednarek, Krzysztof Bartus, Vivek Y. Reddy, William E. Sanders

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2 Citations (Scopus)


Introduction A percutaneously placed implantable intravascular defibrillator (PICD) has been developed with a right ventricular (RV) single-coil lead and titanium electrodes in the superior vena cava (SVC) and the inferior vena cava (IVC). This study evaluated implant techniques, device stability, and anchor histology of the PICD over 9 months in a canine model. Methods Twenty-four hounds (wt = 30-55 kg) were anesthetized and a custom sheath introduced into the right femoral vein. The PICD was advanced over a wire and positioned with the titanium electrodes (cathodes) in the SVC and the IVC. A nitinol anchor secured the device in the jugular. The RV lead was positioned in the RV apex and screwed into place. The catheters, wires, and sheath were removed with an average implant time of 14 minutes. In one group of animals (n = 13), serial venograms were performed at 7 days, 14 days, and 28 days. In a second group (n = 6) and third group (n = 5), venograms were also performed at 90 days and 270 days, respectively. Six canines were sacrificed and anchor histologic examination done at 90 days. Results All implants were successful with no surgical complications observed. Devices (N = 24) remained appropriately positioned with no anchor migration. Histology at 90 days showed 98% endothelialization of the anchor. Venograms revealed patent IVC and jugular veins in all animals at every time point examined. Conclusions The PICD can be rapidly and chronically implanted in animals. Long-term intravascular defibrillator placement is feasible in a canine model.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1251-1258
Number of pages8
JournalPACE - Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - Aug 20 2013



  • chronic canine model
  • implantable cardioverter-defibrillator
  • implantable intravascular cardioverter-defibrillator
  • percutaneous implantation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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