Chronic complications of diabetes mellitus: A mini review

Mohamed Lotfy, Jennifer Adeghate, H. Kalász, Jaipaul Singh, Ernest Adeghate

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

43 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Introduction: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major metabolic disorder currently affecting over 350 million people worldwide. Also, another one billion people in the world are pre-diabetic, who may eventually end up with fullblown diabetes. It costs around 1,200 billion USD to diagnose, treat and care for both type 1 DM (T1DM) and type 2 DM (T2DM) patients globally. The disorder is rapidly increasing out of proportion in both developed and developing countries, especially T2DM, which is associated with modern lifestyle habits such as reduced physical activity, diet, obesity and genetic factors. If left untreated, DM can lead to a number of diseases and long-term complications leading subsequently to death. Areas Covered: In this mini review, we aim to highlight a number of complications, cascades or pathways (polyol, hexosamine, protein kinase C, advanced glycation-end product) of events and cellular, sub-cellular and molecular mechanisms associated with DM-induced hyperglycaemia (HG). Conclusion: Chronic complications of DM are caused largely by HG-induced cellular and molecular impairment of neural and vascular structure and function. HG-induced oxidative stress is a major contributor in the development of long-term complications of DM. DM-induced neuropathy and angiopathy, in turn, may lead to the dysfunction of cells, tissues and organ systems.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3-10
Number of pages8
JournalCurrent Diabetes Reviews
Volume13
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 2017

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Diabetes Complications
Diabetes Mellitus
Hyperglycemia
Hexosamines
Advanced Glycosylation End Products
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
Developed Countries
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Protein Kinase C
Developing Countries
Habits
Blood Vessels
Life Style
Oxidative Stress
Obesity
Exercise
Diet
Costs and Cost Analysis

Keywords

  • Advanced glycation-end products
  • Angiopathy
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Hyperglycaemia
  • Long-term complications
  • Neuropathy
  • Oxidative stress

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Endocrinology

Cite this

Chronic complications of diabetes mellitus : A mini review. / Lotfy, Mohamed; Adeghate, Jennifer; Kalász, H.; Singh, Jaipaul; Adeghate, Ernest.

In: Current Diabetes Reviews, Vol. 13, No. 1, 01.01.2017, p. 3-10.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Lotfy, Mohamed ; Adeghate, Jennifer ; Kalász, H. ; Singh, Jaipaul ; Adeghate, Ernest. / Chronic complications of diabetes mellitus : A mini review. In: Current Diabetes Reviews. 2017 ; Vol. 13, No. 1. pp. 3-10.
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