### Abstract

We analyse the following (solitaire) game: each node of a graph contains a pile of chips, and a move consists of selecting a node with at least as many chips on it as its degree, and letting it send one chip to each of its neighbors. The game terminates if there is no such node. We show that the finiteness of the game and the terminating configuration are independent of the moves made. If the number of chips is less than the number of edges, the game is always finite. If the number of chips is at least the number of edges, the game can be infinite for an appropriately chosen initial configuration. If the number of chips is more than twice the number of edges minus the number of nodes, then the game is always infinite. The independence of the finiteness and the terminating position follows from simple but powerful ‘exchange properties’ of the sequences of legal moves, and from some general results on ‘antimatroids with repetition’, i.e. languages having these exchange properties. We relate the number of steps in a finite game to the least positive eigenvalue of the Laplace operator of the graph.

Original language | English |
---|---|

Pages (from-to) | 283-291 |

Number of pages | 9 |

Journal | European Journal of Combinatorics |

Volume | 12 |

Issue number | 4 |

DOIs | |

Publication status | Published - Jan 1 1991 |

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### ASJC Scopus subject areas

- Discrete Mathematics and Combinatorics

### Cite this

*European Journal of Combinatorics*,

*12*(4), 283-291. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0195-6698(13)80111-4

**Chip-firing Games on Graphs.** / Björner, Anders; Lovász, L.; Shor, Peter W.

Research output: Contribution to journal › Article

*European Journal of Combinatorics*, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 283-291. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0195-6698(13)80111-4

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Chip-firing Games on Graphs

AU - Björner, Anders

AU - Lovász, L.

AU - Shor, Peter W.

PY - 1991/1/1

Y1 - 1991/1/1

N2 - We analyse the following (solitaire) game: each node of a graph contains a pile of chips, and a move consists of selecting a node with at least as many chips on it as its degree, and letting it send one chip to each of its neighbors. The game terminates if there is no such node. We show that the finiteness of the game and the terminating configuration are independent of the moves made. If the number of chips is less than the number of edges, the game is always finite. If the number of chips is at least the number of edges, the game can be infinite for an appropriately chosen initial configuration. If the number of chips is more than twice the number of edges minus the number of nodes, then the game is always infinite. The independence of the finiteness and the terminating position follows from simple but powerful ‘exchange properties’ of the sequences of legal moves, and from some general results on ‘antimatroids with repetition’, i.e. languages having these exchange properties. We relate the number of steps in a finite game to the least positive eigenvalue of the Laplace operator of the graph.

AB - We analyse the following (solitaire) game: each node of a graph contains a pile of chips, and a move consists of selecting a node with at least as many chips on it as its degree, and letting it send one chip to each of its neighbors. The game terminates if there is no such node. We show that the finiteness of the game and the terminating configuration are independent of the moves made. If the number of chips is less than the number of edges, the game is always finite. If the number of chips is at least the number of edges, the game can be infinite for an appropriately chosen initial configuration. If the number of chips is more than twice the number of edges minus the number of nodes, then the game is always infinite. The independence of the finiteness and the terminating position follows from simple but powerful ‘exchange properties’ of the sequences of legal moves, and from some general results on ‘antimatroids with repetition’, i.e. languages having these exchange properties. We relate the number of steps in a finite game to the least positive eigenvalue of the Laplace operator of the graph.

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UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0001327780&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/S0195-6698(13)80111-4

DO - 10.1016/S0195-6698(13)80111-4

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:0001327780

VL - 12

SP - 283

EP - 291

JO - European Journal of Combinatorics

JF - European Journal of Combinatorics

SN - 0195-6698

IS - 4

ER -