Changes in the expression of PACAP-like compounds during the embryonic development of the earthworm Eisenia fetida

Akos Boros, D. Reglodi, Zsofia Herbert, Gabor Kiszler, J. Németh, A. Lubics, P. Kiss, A. Tamás, Seiji Shioda, Kouhei Matsuda, Edit Pollak, Laszló Molnar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

11 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is expressed at very early stages in the vertebrate nervous system, and its functions in the embryonic development have been shown by various studies. PACAP is an extremely conserved molecule in phylogeny; however, little is known about its presence and functions in invertebrates. Our previous studies have shown the occurrence of PACAP-like immunoreactivity in the invertebrate nervous system. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence and localization of PACAP-like compounds during the embryonic development of earthworms from cocoon deposition to hatching using immunological methods (radioimmunoassay, dot blot, immunohistochemistry). PACAP-like immunoreactive compounds were detected at very early stages of the embryonic development of the earthworm Eisenia fetida. No significant changes were observed during the early stages in the developing embryo, but a marked increase occurred before hatching. In contrast, during the embryonic development, the level of PACAP-like compounds gradually decreased in cocoon fluids. Immunohistochemistry revealed the presence of PACAP-like immunoreactive cell bodies and processes in the developing body wall, prostomium, pharyngeal wall, and central nervous system. Cells located in the body wall correspond to putative progenitor cells of primary sensory cells. In the present study, we also showed that the clitellum (reproductive organ) of sexually mature worms contained significantly higher levels of PACAP-like immunoreactivity than other regions of the same animals or the clitellar region of a non-reproducing animal. In summary, these observations provide a morphological basis and suggest a role of PACAP(-like peptides) in the reproductive and developmental functions of invertebrates.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)157-165
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Molecular Neuroscience
Volume36
Issue number1-3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2008

Fingerprint

Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide
Oligochaeta
Embryonic Development
Invertebrates
Nervous System
Immunohistochemistry
Phylogeny
Radioimmunoassay
Vertebrates
Stem Cells
Embryonic Structures
Central Nervous System
Peptides

Keywords

  • Clitellum
  • Cocoon
  • Dot blot
  • Earthworm embryo
  • Primary sensory cells
  • Radioimmunoassay

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience

Cite this

Changes in the expression of PACAP-like compounds during the embryonic development of the earthworm Eisenia fetida. / Boros, Akos; Reglodi, D.; Herbert, Zsofia; Kiszler, Gabor; Németh, J.; Lubics, A.; Kiss, P.; Tamás, A.; Shioda, Seiji; Matsuda, Kouhei; Pollak, Edit; Molnar, Laszló.

In: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience, Vol. 36, No. 1-3, 11.2008, p. 157-165.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Boros, Akos ; Reglodi, D. ; Herbert, Zsofia ; Kiszler, Gabor ; Németh, J. ; Lubics, A. ; Kiss, P. ; Tamás, A. ; Shioda, Seiji ; Matsuda, Kouhei ; Pollak, Edit ; Molnar, Laszló. / Changes in the expression of PACAP-like compounds during the embryonic development of the earthworm Eisenia fetida. In: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience. 2008 ; Vol. 36, No. 1-3. pp. 157-165.
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AU - Boros, Akos

AU - Reglodi, D.

AU - Herbert, Zsofia

AU - Kiszler, Gabor

AU - Németh, J.

AU - Lubics, A.

AU - Kiss, P.

AU - Tamás, A.

AU - Shioda, Seiji

AU - Matsuda, Kouhei

AU - Pollak, Edit

AU - Molnar, Laszló

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AB - Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is expressed at very early stages in the vertebrate nervous system, and its functions in the embryonic development have been shown by various studies. PACAP is an extremely conserved molecule in phylogeny; however, little is known about its presence and functions in invertebrates. Our previous studies have shown the occurrence of PACAP-like immunoreactivity in the invertebrate nervous system. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence and localization of PACAP-like compounds during the embryonic development of earthworms from cocoon deposition to hatching using immunological methods (radioimmunoassay, dot blot, immunohistochemistry). PACAP-like immunoreactive compounds were detected at very early stages of the embryonic development of the earthworm Eisenia fetida. No significant changes were observed during the early stages in the developing embryo, but a marked increase occurred before hatching. In contrast, during the embryonic development, the level of PACAP-like compounds gradually decreased in cocoon fluids. Immunohistochemistry revealed the presence of PACAP-like immunoreactive cell bodies and processes in the developing body wall, prostomium, pharyngeal wall, and central nervous system. Cells located in the body wall correspond to putative progenitor cells of primary sensory cells. In the present study, we also showed that the clitellum (reproductive organ) of sexually mature worms contained significantly higher levels of PACAP-like immunoreactivity than other regions of the same animals or the clitellar region of a non-reproducing animal. In summary, these observations provide a morphological basis and suggest a role of PACAP(-like peptides) in the reproductive and developmental functions of invertebrates.

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