Central nervous system stimulants and anorectic agents

K. Kelemen, J. Knoll

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Abstract

Reports on over- the- counter stimulants, amphetamines, xanthine derivatives, non-theophylline related respiratory stimulants, anorectic agents, and nootropic agents are briefly mentioned. Moderate doses of caffeine (180 and 360 mg) were shown to cause significant hypokalemia in healthy volunteers. Phenylpropanolamine has caused behavioral disturbances, changes of mood or even psychosis; the central stimulant effects of even a normal 25 mg anorexic dose seem to be sufficient to cause derangement in certain individuals. Use of Phenylpropanolamine is still being recommended for allergic and vasomotor rhinitis as well as in the management of obesity. Propylhexedrine is another example of a drug which is sold for valid purpose but misused by certain individuals. Cases of psychosis, cardiac and pulmonary problems, as well as sudden death, have been reported following its abuse. Combined use of methylphenidate and narcotic analgesics has been proposed for the treatment of cancer pain. Most of the problems arising with Pemoline relate to the CNS, but organic complications including derangements of liver function have been described in both the old and the young. Tolerability, toxicity and the correlation of clinical symptoms and serum theophylline level are briefly described. Sustained-release theophylline preparations are usually well tolerated. Aminophylline, a xanthine derivative as a complex of theophylline and ethylenediamine, can exhibit the adverse effects of either of its components. Bamifylline is a new xanthine derivative with theophylline-like activity and a prolonged plasma half-life. It is claimed to be safer than slow release Aminophylline. When the cardiovascular effects of enprophylline (which has no adenosine receptor antagonism) and of theophylline (an adenosine receptor antagonist) were compared in healthy subjects, no important differences were found. Aminorex, Fenfluramine and Mazindol are anaorectic agents.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-7
Number of pages7
JournalSide Effects of Drugs Annual
Volume12
Issue numberC
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1988

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ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Drug guides
  • Pharmacology (medical)

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