Atopic dermatitis represents a chronically relapsing skin disease with a steadily increasing prevalence of 10-20% in children. Skin-infiltrating T cells, dendritic cells (DC), and mast cells are thought to play a crucial role in its pathogenesis. We report that the expression of the CC chemokine CCL1 (I-309) is significantly and selectively up-regulated in atopic dermatitis in comparison to psoriasis, cutaneous lupus erythematosus, or normal skin. CCL1 serum levels of atopic dermatitis patients are significantly higher than levels in healthy individuals. DC, mast cells, and dermal endothelial cells are abundant sources of CCL1 during atopic skin inflammation and allergen challenge, and Staphylococcus aureus-derived products induce its production. In vitro, binding and cross-linking of IgE on mast cells resulted in a significant up-regulation of this inflammatory chemokine. Its specific receptor, CCR8, is expressed on a small subset of circulating T cells and is abundantly expressed on interstitial DC, Langerhans cells generated in vitro, and their monocytic precursors. Although DC maintain their CCR8+ status during maturation, brief activation of circulating T cells recruits CCR8 from intracytoplamic stores to the cell surface. Moreover, the inflammatory and atopy-associated chemokine CCL1 synergizes with the homeostatic chemokine CXCL12 (SDF-1α) resulting in the recruitment of T cell and Langerhans cell-like DC. Taken together, these findings suggest that the axis CCL1-CCR8 links adaptive and innate immune functions that play a role in the initiation and amplification of atopic skin inflammation.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy