Over the past 20-30 years various carbon implant materials have become more interesting, because they are well accepted by the biological environment. The traditional carbon-based polymers give rise to many complications. The polymer complication may be eliminated through carbon fibres bound by pyrocarbon (carbon/carbon). Aim: The aim of this study is to present the long-term results of carbon/carbon implants. Methods: Mandibular reconstruction was performed with pure (99.99%) carbon implants in 16 patients. Predominantly tumorous cases were included (10 malignant tumors, 4 large cystic lesions and 2 augmentative processes). Results: Because the interventions had been performed 6-8 years before the last follow-up visit, the authors report long-term results. Of the 16 patients, the implants had to be removed earlier in 5 patients because of the defect that arose on the oral mucosa above the carbon plates. The most probable cause of this complication was the strain in the oral mucosa and disturbances in its blood supply (previous surgery, irradiated tissue, etc.). During the long-term follow-up, plate fracture, loosening of screws, infection or inflammation around the carbon/carbon implants were not observed. After 8 years one carbon implant was substituted with an autogenous bone. Conclusions: The clinical conclusion is that if the soft part cover is appropriate, the carbon implants are cosmetically and functionally more suitable than titanium plates. The structural and chemical investigation of the removed implant will be published in the near future.
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